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(A copyrighted publication of West Virginia Archives and History)

Fayetteville, West Virginia, During The Civil War

By Mary Elizabeth Kincaid

Volume 14, Number 4 (July 1953), pp. 339-364

I

PRELIMINARY MOVEMENTS

Fayetteville, the county seat of Fayette County, West Virginia, was originally named Vandalia for its founder, Abraham Vandal. Before 1837, the name was changed to Fayetteville, after the name of the county, and in honor of Marquis de Lafayette, the French nobleman, who helped this country during the dark days of the Revolutionary War.1

Fayetteville was situated on the Giles, Fayette and Kanawha Turnpike. When Fort Sumter was fired upon on April 12, 1861, it was a typical provincial county seat, populated almost entirely by county officers, and its peacefulness disturbed only by a term of court or by an occasional visit from a personage of note passing through the county.

The majority of the people in Fayetteville and Fayette County were in sympathy with the Southern cause. Henry L. Gillispie, the delegate from Fayette and Raleigh counties, in the Virginia Convention of 1861, voted for its secession ordinance. Fayette County sent no delegates to the convention in northwest Virginia, which met at Wheeling on May 13, 1861, or to the second convention held there on June 11.2

At a meeting of the Fayette County Confederate sympathizers held at Gauley Bridge, April 27, 1861, it was unanimously resolved:

First: That an immediate response to the proclamation of the Governor of Virginia should be made by the organization of a volunteer company of riflemen pledged to defend the honor and interests of the state, and with this in view to cooperate with other military companies along the route of the Kanawha Valley.

Second: that until arms and equipment of suitable character can be obtained, each citizen shall provide his own rifle and equipments, and be mustered at such time and place as may be appointed with the least possible delay.

Third: That the Colonel of the 142d regiment be requested to superintend the election of officers above notified on the subscription of the requisite number of men.3

At a special meeting of the County Court of Fayette County held at Fayetteville on May 13, and consisting of the justices of the peace form the various magisterial districts, an appropriation of $5,000 was made "for the purpose of uniforming and equipping the volunteer forces of this county, also for the support of the destitute families of those who have or may volunteer their services in defense of the state."4 A committee was appointed to apply and disburse the funds raised. A special police force was appointed for the different magisterial districts. The duty of this force was to watch over the several districts and arrest all persons who were believed to be engaged in inciting insurrection or rebellion against the state.5

On Saturday, May 18, a general muster of Confederates held at Fayetteville was largely attended. Brigadier General Alfred Beckley was present, and during the three days training of officers, showed much energy in imparting military instruction. B. H. Jones also addressed the soldiers and citizens, "pouring hot shot in the camp of the enemy and denouncing in most withering terms the traitors at home." At the conclusion, a call was made for volunteers and about fifty persons stepped forward and enrolled their names. The "Kanawha Rangers," under Captain Charles L. Lewis, were present. The Courthouse, the public buildings, and homes were decorated, and everybody partook of a dinner at the Courthouse.6

That the Southern men were willing to go to great length in support of their cause is indicated in the following resolutions of the court, adopted on June 1861:

Whereas our state has been invaded by a hostile army of northern fanatics, and we feel bound to resist said invasion to the last extremity, Resolved therefore,

First: That we feel it to be our duty in accordance with an Act of the Legislature passed January 19, 1861, to levy on the people of the county from time to time as may be necessary to enable us to resist said invasion, such amounts of money as we shall think practicable and expedient.

Second: That we will then, after money and property are exhausted, feel it to be our duty to levy for said purpose on the credit of the county and when that also is gone, we will eat roots, and drink water and still fight for our liberty unto death.

Third: That should any of the members of this Court feel friendly to the North, that we invite them or him peacefully and civilly to resign his or their commission.7

II

ACTIVITIES IN 1861

The position at the head of navigation in Fayette County and the surrounding territory was of decided military importance. Here the New River and Gauley River merge to form the Great Kanawha. The James River and Kanawha Turnpike paralleled New River to the eastward. Another road extended from Gauley to Summersville, a distance of about thirty miles, with a side road to Cross Lanes and Carnifex Ferry. From Summersville, this road continued northward to Sutton and Weston, thus making a line of communications between northwestern Virginia and the Kanawha Valley.8 The Giles, Fayette and Kanawha Turnpike extended up the left bank of New River, from Kanawha Falls through Fayetteville to Flat Top Mountain, another strong position, thence to the Narrows of New River, the route leading on to the important Virginia and Tennessee Railroad.

On May 13, 1861, General George B. McClellan was assigned to the Department of the Ohio, which included within its boundaries all of that part of Virginia lying west of the Alleghenies. On June 22, Brigadier General J. D. Cox was given command of the fourth division of McClellan's army, known as the "Brigade of the Kanawha." It consisted of the First and Second Kentucky, Eleventh and Twelfth Ohio Regiments, United States Volunteer Infantry; the Nineteenth, Twenty-first, and portions of the Eighteenth and Twenty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and the Ironton Cavalry.9

On June 6, the Confederate War Department commissioned Henry A. wise, ex-governor of Virginia, as brigadier general, and authorized him to raise in the Kanawha Valley and surrounding territory an independent force of volunteers, comprising all arms of the service, to be known as Wise's Legion.10 Two other men, Colonel Christopher Q. Tompkins and Colonel John McCausland, were commissioned to raise troops in the valley to cooperate with the legion.11 Alfred Beckley, a brigadier general from Raleigh County, was also active in organizing and training regiments for the defense of Virginia. In Fayette County, he organized and trained the One Hundred and Forty-second Regiment, which comprised a part of the Twenty-seventh brigade.12

In addition to the above force, General John B. Floyd, of Virginia, also an ex-governor, and former secretary of war under President Buchanan, was asked on May 14 to raise a brigade of mounted riflemen.13 Floyd responded and was soon afterward commissioned brigadier general. He was first ordered to protect the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, which was threatened by Northern troops marching through Fayette County to Lewisburg.14

On July 11, Cox began his movement up the Kanawha River by boat. Advance guards marched along both sides of the river.15 Anticipating this advance, Wise advanced to Lewisburg and thence to the Kanawha Valley, recruiting on the way. He reached Charleston on July 6, where he was joined by Colonel Tompkins' detachment and by several hundred militia, which raised his force to twenty-seven hundred men.16

At an affair at Scary Creek below Charleston on July 17, in which the Federals retreated, Wise learned that the Federals were being re-enforced, and being short of ammunition, he retreated by way of Gauley Bridge, burning the bridges behind him.17 He left five hundred cavalry under Colonel Lucius Davis, backed by the militia of Monroe and Greenbrier counties, to guard the passes from Fayetteville, Gauley, and Summersville. In a letter to General Robert E. Lee, he said, "The valley was conquered by the enemy already when I got there. . . . The treasonable population themselves are worse than the invaders. It was rotten with infection in it and all around it so as awfully to expose a minor force." He suggested that Floyd move towards Fayetteville and united with him.18

Cox continued his advance up the Kanawha and on July 25, took Charleston. Four days later he reached Gauley Bridge,19 where he began fortifications.

On July 23, the United States War Department appointed Brigadier General William S. Rosecrans to succeed McClellan as commander of the Department of the Ohio, of which the Army of Occupation of western Virginia was a part.20 By the middle of August, he had established a line of posts connecting Weston and Gauley Bridge, by way of Bulltown, Sutton, and Summersville.21

After the Confederates, under General Robert S. Garnett, were defeated at Rich Mountain and Corrick's Ford, General Robert E. Lee gave his attention personally to the direction of affairs in the trans-Allegheny Department. August 11, General Floyd was assigned to command in the Kanawha Valley,22 with Wise's forces operating under him. On August 18, Floyd encamped on Big Sewell Mountain.23 Wise had reluctantly accompanied him, but on the following day moved farther west in the direction of Hawk's Nest.

General Alfred Beckley and General A. A. Chapman, who had command of the militia in Fayette and nearby counties were ordered to collect their forces in preparation for action.24 General Wise advanced to Dogwood Gap, while Floyd occupied Summersville. The only Federal forces in the region were Cox's at Gauley Bridge and Colonel E. B. Tyler's at Carnifex Ferry.25

On August 20, there was a slight skirmish between part of Cox's forces and a company of Confederate cavalry under Lieutenant Colonel George Crohan at Hawk's Nest, in which each side lost a few killed and wounded.26 On August 25, Colonel Albert Jenkins' cavalry was defeated near Piggot's Mill by an infantry ambuscade under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph W. Frizell.27 On August 26, Floyd made a surprise attack on Tyler's regiment near Cross Lanes and forty-five or fifty Federals were reported killed or wounded, one hundred were taken prisoners and some stores were taken. When news of this disaster reached Rosecrans, he began to advance toward Gauley and unite with the Kanawha brigade.28

On September 2, Wise, assisted by Colonel P. B. Anderson, attacked the Federals at Hawk's Nest. He was forced to abandon his stand, but took a position covering Miller's Ferry and Liken's Mill.29 At the same time, Generals Beckley and Chapman succeeded in driving the Federals from Cotton Hill to within two miles of Montgomery's Ferry on the south side of the river, and even threw some balls into the camp at Gauley.30 Floyd got the idea that Cox was moving to attack him, and made no aggressive movement.31 On September 10, the Federal advance under Rosecrans attacked Floyd at Carnifex Ferry. They were repulsed and withdrew, intending to renew the attack the next morning, but Floyd considered his own position too hazardous to withstand another attack, so withdrew to the opposite shore of Gauley River,32 and from thence to Sewell Mountain.

Following this there was considerable skirmishing and Colonel Lucius Davis, operating on the south side of New River, captured several prisoners.33 On September 21, Lee visited Floyd's camp on Sewell Mountain and urged Wise and Floyd to unite and "conquer or die together."34 On September 20, Wise was relieved from command in western Virginia,35 and five days later set out for Richmond.

When Rosecrans reached Gauley Bridge about October 5, he established his headquarters near the Tompkins' farm on Gauley Mountain and distributed his brigades "in echelon" along the turnpike. Brigadier General Robert C. Schenck held the most advanced post, about ten miles from Gauley Bridge. Colonel Robert L. McCook was stationed at Miller's Ferry, eight miles from Gauley, where the road from Fayetteville comes to the river, while Brigadier General H. W. Benham was located six miles from Gauley.36

Wise was succeeded by General W. W. Loring, who had seen service under Lee in the northwest. He was given the task of driving the Federals out of the Hawk's Nest region. Floyd was detached for a movement up the south side of New River in order to cut the communications of the Federals. He took with him Russell's Mississippi Regiment, Phillip's Legion, the Fourteenth Georgia, the Fifty-first, Forty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, and Twenty-second Virginia, and five hundred cavalry -- in all some four thousand men.37

Lee planned to join these two forces and by a concerted movement drive the Federals out of the Valley. Had it not been for the incessant rains in this region, one of the decisive battles of the war might have been fought.38 As it was, only skirmishing took place and on October 20, Lee received reports from the Staunton region so threatening that he was forced to move the greater part of his detachment in that direction. Floyd was disappointed but he established his camp at the forks of the road to Miller's Ferry and Gauley Bridge and directly in front of Fayetteville.39

The Federals knew that the Confederate militia had occupied the region of New River all summer. About October 18, they were seen opposite Miller's Ferry by McCook's brigade. They were to be assembled at Fayetteville for a rally and to be paid off, so Rosecrans ordered McCook to cross the river and capture or disperse them, and "occupy or treat the country" as circumstances demanded. On October 20, he marched to Fayetteville and found only guerilla parties. He then occupied the town, and after reconnoitering the roads in the neighborhood, and satisfying himself that there was no force there other than the militia, he returned to Miller's Ferry without leaving a guard on the other side.40

When McCook did attempt to place troops on the other side on October 25, he found the cliffs occupied by a force of sharpshooters, who made crossing impossible. This was Floyd's advance guard.

For a few days the Confederates made no serious move and Rosecrans continued the work of clothing and paying the men, and increasing his ranks. It was thought best to finish that before occupying the Fayetteville side in force.

About October 27, word was received that the Confederate were moving down from Raleigh to cut off Rosecrans' communications. Rosecrans, therefore, decided to close in and capture them. On October 29, the Confederates scattered Federal outposts on the Fayetteville Road and pushed them down to the mouth of Great Falls Creek and, on November 1, began fortifying Cotton Hill.41 The same day, Floyd opened with cannon on the camp at Gauley, which for the next ten days was the scene of almost constant skirmishing. As soon as Rosecrans learned that there was danger of a Confederate advance from Lewisburg, he took steps to end the situation.

At that time the Federals were distributed as follows: Schenck at Camp Ewing, near Bowyer's Ferry; McCook at Camp Anderson, near Miller's Ferry; Cox with the Second Kentucky at Tompkins' farm; and the remainder at Gauley. Rosecrans' plan was for Schenck to cross New River and move against Floyd's front, while Benham, who was stationed at the mouth of Big Loup Creek, was to pass up that creek and by a movement to the left strike at Floyd's rear. McCook was to remain at Miller's Ferry, threaten to cross, and at the same time watch for a Confederate advance from the direction of Lewisburg.42

On November 10, Cox detached two hundred men from the Eleventh Ohio under Colonel C. A. DeVilliers with orders to cross the New River just above Gauley, and Lieutenant Colonel D. A. Enyart with two hundred of the First Kentucky to cross below Gauley to reconnoiter the Fayetteville Road.43 The Confederates were in force at Dickerson's, opposite Miller's Ferry.

Colonel DeVilliers had a sharp skirmish with the Confederates and drove them beyond Blake's farm. Here they made a stand and succeeded in holding back DeVilliers until evening, when he was re-enforced by six companies of the Second Kentucky. The combined force forced Floyd over the crest of Cotton Hill.44

On November 11, Benham sent a detachment of one thousand men from the head of Loup Creek to Cassidy's Mill on Laurel Creek, near Fayetteville.45 Rosecrans informed him of the Federal advance and urged him to push forward, but he did not move.46 During the night of November 11, Rosecrans ordered him to occupy Cotton Hill and the next morning he started out. About 3:00 p.m., his advance column met some Confederate pickets and skirmished with them until dark. Benham bivouacked along the road for the night, and about 2:30 a.m., a scout reported hearing heavy wheels rumbling. They could not tell whether the Confederates were retreating or receiving re-enforcements. Benham sent scouts out at daylight and at 4:00 p.m., they reported that the Confederates had retreated.47

Benham did not set out in pursuit until 5:00 p.m. At 7:00 p.m. he reached the Dickerson farm where the Confederates had been entrenched. He continued the pursuit and reached the Hawkin's farm, five miles beyond Fayetteville, about 4:00 p.m., November 14. He rested there about three hours before resuming the march. About 9:30 a.m., the advance guard skirmished with some Confederate cavalry. At McCoy's Mill, a considerable force of Confederates were found behind the ridge. A Federal Flank attack on the left forced them to retire.48 Further pursuit was delayed by a burned bridge and Schenck, who had already occupied Fayetteville, ordered Benham to return there, which he did on November 15.49

The Federals were housed in the deserted homes of secessionists, where they prepared to spend the winter.

On Sunday, November 17, Rutherford Birchard Hayes, later the nineteenth president of the United States, then in charge of the Twenty-third Ohio Regiment, was sent in command of two hundred men from the Twenty-third and Twenty-sixth Ohio, six miles towards Raleigh Courthouse to watch a road on which it was thought Colonel Jenkins' Confederate cavalry might pass. A party of Confederates did pass, and Hayes chatted with some of them. He described them in his diary as "civil and friendly fellows." He saw nothing of Jenkins, however, but heard cannon firing down the Kanawha, and prepared rail barricades.50

On November 18, General Schenck left on account of sickness, and his brigade, left in command of Colonel E. P. Scammon, was stationed at Fayetteville.51 They received orders to remain there for the winter. They were instructed to build a little fort or two, keep about fifteen hundred men, sixty horsemen, and a battery of four to six small cannon. In the meantime they were housed comfortably. Hayes occupied a brick house which had been deserted by its owner, a Confederate. At night when the duties of the day were ended, the officers sat around and played whist.52

Hayes gives a good account of the ensuing three months in his diary and letters. On November 25, 1861, he wrote to his mother:

After several days of severe marching, camping on the ground, without tents, once in the rain and once on the snow, we have returned from a fruitless chase after Floyd's Rebel army, and are now housed in the deserted dwellings of a beautiful village. We have no reports of any enemy near us and are preparing for winter. We shall quarter here if the roads to the head of navigation would allow. As it is we shall probably go to a steamboat landing on the Kanawha. Snow is now three or four inches deep and still falling. We are on high ground -- perhaps a thousand feet above the Kanawha River -- and twelve miles from Gauley Mountain.

Our troops are very healthy. We have here in my regiment six hundred and sixty-two men of whom only three are seriously ill. Perhaps fifteen others are complaining so as to be excused from guard duty. The fever which took down so many of our men has almost disappeared.

This is a rugged mountain region, with large rushing rivers of pure clear water and full of the grandest scenery I have ever beheld. I rode yesterday over Cotton Hill and along New River a distance of thirty miles. I was alone most of the day, and could enjoy scenes made still wilder by the wintry storm.

We do not hear of any murders by bushwhackers in this part of Virginia, and can go where we choose without apprehension of danger. We meet very few men. The poor women excite our sympathy constantly. A great share of the calamities of war fall on the women. I see women unused to hard labor gathering corn to keep starvation from the door. I am now in command of the post here, and a large part of my time is occupied in hearing tales of distress and trying to soften the very small amount of salt, sugar, coffee, rice, and bacon goes a long way where all these things are luxuries no longer procurable in the ordinary way.

We are well supplied with everything. But clothes are worn out, lost, etc., very rapidly in these rough marches. People disposed to give can't go amiss in sending shoes, boots, stockings, thick shirts and drawers, mittens, or gloves, and blankets. Other knickknacks are of small account. . . .53

On November 29, in a letter to his niece, Hayes said, "We are in no immediate danger here of anything except starvation, which you know is a slow death and gives ample time for reflection."54 On December 10, Hayes, together with Captain Carlos A. Sperry and Lieutenant R. P. Kennedy Moved into a cottage owned by J. H. Phillips, a dry goods dealer who had joined the Confederate army. Phillips' store had been burned by Union men, but Hayes said of the cottage, "We shall take good care of the premises and try to leave them in as good condition as we find them."55

At this time Hayes thought the war would be of short duration. He said, "Once taught to respect the North, they will come to terms gladly, I think."56 On December 17, he said, "The Rebels are getting sick of it. Nobody but Jenkins holds out in all this country. Rebel soldiers come and give up their arms."57

By the end of the year three forts had been built. Two were on the hill northeast of Fayetteville, and one on the hill southeast of that town. At this time, the Twenty-sixth Ohio Regiment, under Colonel Ephraim R. Eckley; five companies of the Thirtieth Ohio, under Colonel Hugh Ewing; the Twenty-third Ohio, under Colonel Hayes; McMullin's Battery; and a Pennsylvania cavalry company, a total of 1,430 men, were stationed there.58

By the end of the year they had a telegraph line "running down to civilization," and got papers from Cincinnati irregularly from four to ten days old. The forts were almost finished, and the men were well fed. Plans were being made to make an expedition through Raleigh County to Princeton to capture what was left of the enemy, and perhaps strike at the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. On December 29, Major J. M. Comly took two companies of the Thirtieth Ohio, and one company of the Twenty-sixth Ohio to occupy Raleigh Courthouse, which left five hundred and twenty men at Fayetteville.59

The officers and soldiers kept in good spirits and were optimistic about a victorious ending soon. On December 23, Hayes said, "If England does not step in, or some great disaster befall us, we shall conquer the Rebellion beyond doubt, and at no distant period."60

With the close of 1861, the Federals were not only in undisputed control of the Kanawha Valley, but also controlled most of the trans-Allegheny section of Virginia. Loring had been sent to Winchester and Floyd was detailed to the Confederate army in the West. The only effective opposition to Federal control was that of General H. R. Jackson at Allegheny Mountain. But for this, the Federals were in position to push toward Staunton and strike at the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, which connected Richmond, Virginia, and Nashville, Tennessee.61

III

ACTIVITIES IN 1862

As the spring of 1862 approached, plans were completed for a campaign to reach the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. On April 6, Major General John C. Fremont, who had superseded Rosecrans as commander of the Mountain Department, issued orders to Brigadier General Cox to move his division forward.62 Cox accordingly ordered Colonel Scammon to unite the Twenty-third Ohio and Thirtieth Ohio, McMullin's Battery, and a company of cavalry at Raleigh Courthouse, and then take such forces as might be needed to Flat Top Mountain. The remaining regiments, consisting of the Twenty-eighth Ohio, Thirty-fourth Ohio, and Thirty-seventh Ohio, with Simmond's Kentucky Battery, were concentrated at Fayetteville, and formed into a new brigade under Colonel Augustus Moor.63

On June 26, General John Pope was assigned to command the Army of Virginia, which was made to include the Mountain Department. He wanted to unite in one army as many of the troops as possible, and on August 11, following his defeat at Cedar Mountain, he directed that five thousand men should remain in West Virginia, and the remainder proceed to Washington for its defense, so it was then thought to be in imminent danger. Orders had also been issued to make Fayetteville and Hawk's Nest the principal advance posts in the district, with Gauley Bridge their common depot of supply and point of concentration, should the Confederates advance in force. Colonel J. A. J. Lightburn, of the Fourth Virginia (U.S.A.) was left in charge of these outposts.

On August 17, when Lightburn assumed command of the Kanawha District, the troops under his command were the Thirty-seventh Ohio, Thirty-fourth Ohio, and Forty-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantries; the Fourth Virginia, Eighth Virginia, and Ninth Virginia Volunteer Infantries; and the Second Virginia Cavalry. The Thirty-fourth and Thirty-seventh Ohio Infantries, under the command of Colonel Edward Siber, were stationed at Raleigh Courthouse. The Forty-fourth and Forty-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantries, together with two companies of Virginia cavalry, under the command of Colonel S. A. Gilbert, were at Camp Ewing, near Gauley Bridge. Two companies of the Second Virginia Cavalry, under Major R. S. Curtis, were at Summersville. The remainder of the Ninth and Fourth Virginia Infantries, and Second Virginia Cavalry were stationed at different points between Gauley Bridge and Charleston.64

In the meantime, General W. W. Loring, with about five thousand men, was encamped at the Narrows of New River, about eighty miles southeast of Fayetteville. On August 29, George W. Randolph, Confederate Secretary of War, informed him that Pope's letter book had been captured, exposing the fact that only five thousand men were left in western Virginia. As the Confederates were in desperate need of salt, they availed themselves of this opportunity to enter the Kanawha Valley for a supply, while it was not so well guarded. There was also a possibility that the valley might be recovered. General A. G. Jenkins was given instruction to reconnoiter the situation. For this purpose he set out from Salt Sulphur Springs in Monroe County with the Eighth Virginia Cavalry, consisting of five hundred men, and marched through Greenbrier, Pocahontas, Randolph, Upshur, Lewis, Gilmer, Calhoun, Roane, and Jackson counties to the Ohio River at Ravenswood. Here he crossed the river and by a route south of the Kanawha River, returned to his command.65 Loring was then ordered to "clear the valley of the Kanawha, and operate northwardly."66

On September 6, Loring left Camp Narrows, Virginia, for the Kanawha, with an army about five thousand strong.67 His line of operations was by way of Princeton, Flat Top Mountain, and Raleigh Courthouse to Fayetteville.

Having learned that Loring was planning to advance upon the Kanawha Valley, Lightburn ordered Colonel Siber to fall back from Raleigh Courthouse to Fayetteville, and Colonel Gilbert to fall back to Tompkins' farm, on Gauley Mountain. Fearing that Jenkins might attack Summersville, six companies of the Forty-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry were detached from Gilbert's command and placed under command of Colonel L. S. Elliot, to re-enforce that place. At the same time, the quartermaster and commissary stores were directed to be shipped to Charleston.68

In obedience to instructions, Siber fell back from Raleigh Courthouse to Fayetteville, occupying the fortifications constructed by Scammon during the previous winter, which, according to R. L. Poor, chief engineer of the Confederate Army of western Virginia, were made up of the following:

First, an irregular work of three faces, each of 40 yards' development, 8 feet in command, and 7 in relief; barbettes in each salient, covering well the ground in front; located on admirable selected position, enfilading the surrounding open plains. Second, a similar work, constructed as a musketry defense, flanked by felled timber, rifle-pits. Third, a formidable, well-constructed, and inclosed lunette, connecting, by covert way, with flanking redan on commanding ground, barbettes in each salient, commanding each of the advance works, with development sufficient for a regiment.69

This positions, however, was commanded on its right flank and rear by wooded hills. Besides this, it could be turned by Laurel and Loup creeks.

On the night of September 9 and 10, Siber heard that a secessionist named Tetam, from Laurel Creek, had said that he would need his rifle the next morning. Acting on this information, he sent his entire cavalry force, consisting of a sergeant and six orderlies, to take him up. This detachment reached Tetam's house, but was pursued down Laurel Creek by about thirty Confederate cavalry.

This incident warned Siber that the Confederate forces were near and would soon attack the re-enforcements at Fayetteville, so about 11 o'clock he detached Lieutenant Colonel F. E. Franklin, with two companies of the Thirty-fourth Regiment, to Cassidy's Mill, on Laurel Creek, while two other companies were sent up the creek to join him. Two companies of the Thirty-seventh Ohio Regiment, under Captain Charles Moritz, were advanced on the Raleigh Pike Road. These six regiments were to act as a reconnoitering party.70

In the meantime, when within about four and one-half miles from Fayetteville, Loring directed Colonel G. C. Wharton to proceed with the Twenty-second Regiment, under Colonel George S. Patton; the Fifty-first under Lieutenant Colonel August Forsberg; and J. Lyle Clarke's battalion of sharpshooters, under Lieutenant Clarke, by a road to the left, in order to attack the Federals in the rear,71 while Brigadier General John S. Williams was to delay his march of the Second Brigade on the turnpike in front one hour in order that both might strike at the Federal fortifications simultaneously. When within two or three miles of the Courthouse, Williams' front guard, under Captain E. L. Read, met the reconnoitering party sent out by Siber. After a short skirmish the Federals were driven to a square redoubt in the open field commanding the road.72 This redoubt was held by Companies B, C, D, F, and G, of the Thirty-seventh Ohio Regiment, supported by two 60 pounders, under command of Lieutenant William West.73

Two hills now lay between the Confederates' and the Federals' first position. The Confederates moved their artillery to the top of the first hill, while the Forty-fifth and Thirty-sixth Virginia proceeded under cover of the woodland along the right flank of the Federal position. Edgar's battalion was placed in the rear of the batteries. Williams' batteries opened fire, and were replied to by a storm of shell and grape, and Minie balls from sharpshooters, who held the ravine and opposite hill. The Confederates suffered considerable loss here, but made a determined effort and succeeded in moving to the next hill, and thence forward to within three hundred yards of the Federal fort, where they opened a terrible cannonade upon it. Colonel William H. Browne led the Forty-fifth Virginia along the woodland, driving the Federals before him, while McCausland with the Thirty-sixth Virginia occupied a house and some tree stumps which had been used by the Federals.74

Wharton arrived at the rear of the Federal fortifications about 2:15 p.m. He had had a difficult trip over the rough ground and upon his arrival found that the Federal batteries were not in the position which had been described to him. The Federals had two batteries in front which commanded all the space (about 1,000 yards), as well as the woods where the Confederates took position. Between these two batteries ran the turnpike to Gauley Bridge.

After looking over the situation, the Confederates decided that Major S. M. Dickey, with three companies of the Fifty-first Virginia Regiment, should take position on a spur extending out and commanding the turnpike on the left, while Lieutenant Colonel Clarke, with some of his sharpshooters, should take position on the right. Colonel Patton, with a part of the Twenty-second Virginia Regiment, was sent to another spur still further to the right, while Major R. A. Bailey, of the Twenty-second Virginia was sent to the extreme right. The remainder of the forces were to be held in reserve for support where it would be most needed. Before they were hardly in position, they were attacked by the Federal infantry and sharpshooters. At the same time the Federal batteries began to pour in a fire of shell and grape. Three times the Federals attempted to drive the Confederates from their positions, but without success. Major Bailey succeeded in driving the Federals from the battery on the right, but could not hold it, as it was commanded by the other battery.75

When Siber realized that the Confederates were on both his rear and right, he ordered Colonel John T. Toland, with six companies of the Thirty-fourth Ohio Regiment, to clear the road to Gauley, and drive the Confederates from the woods in the rear. Two of these companies, under Captain H. C. Hatfield, attempted to clear the Gauley Road, while the other four, under Colonel Toland, met the Confederates in the woods. The six companies fought for three hours without being able to gain the woods. At sunset, General Williams, for some reason unknown, withdrew his regiment on the right flank of the Federals, thus opening their line of retreat.

While Wharton was still engaged in front, Lieutenant Colonel Franklin, with the four detached companies of the Thirty-fourth Regiment, arrived. Almost at the same time, a detachment of twenty-five horses of the Second Virginia Cavalry, and three companies of the Fourth Virginia Infantry, under Captain Alexander Vance, arrived from Gauley to re-enforce the Federals.76 After the arrival of these re-enforcements the Federals made two more attempts to drive back the Confederates. Realizing that he could not hold the position another day, Siber, between 1 and 2 o'clock in the morning, withdrew the whole force from Fayetteville, unperceived by the Confederates. Before leaving, however, they set fire to the commissary stores without any molestation except an ambush hidden in the woods in the rear.77

Milton Humphreys says that there was a report current in the Confederate Army that Loring ordered Wharton to leave the way open for the Federals to escape, but this cannot be proved. Loring said he could not guard all the many roads leading from Fayetteville, but the strange thing about it is that he left unguarded the very road the Federals were sure to take.78

On the morning of September 11, when the Confederates learned that the Federals had abandoned the works, they set out in pursuit, led by General Williams, Colonel Wharton, and General Echols. They overtook the Federals on the ridge of Cotton Hill, but were driven back and the Federals succeeded in reaching the Kanawha River.79

When Lightburn heard of the battle going on at Fayetteville, he called in all the forces which had been stationed at Summersville and on the Lewisburg Pike. The entire command retreated down the valley, skirmishing all the way. Lightburn made a stand at Charleston on September 13, but believing his forces to be outnumbered two to one, he continued the retreat to Point Pleasant.80

The Confederate loss at the Battle of Fayetteville was sixteen killed upon the field and thirty-two wounded.81 The Federal loss in the battle and during the entire four days while retreating down the valley, was twenty-five killed, ninety-five wounded, and one hundred ninety missing.82

The Kanawha Valley was now in the hands of the Confederates. Loring left garrisons at Fayetteville and at Gauley, and about four thousand men occupied Charleston.83 Lee meant to retain the valley, and use it as a base of operations to recover trans-Allegheny Virginia. With this in mind, he ordered Loring to destroy the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad bridge at Cheat River and join Lee in Virginia. Instead of obeying Lee's orders, Loring wrote him of his intentions to march by way of Lewisburg and Monterey.84 For this reason, Loring was removed from command on October 15, and was replaced by Brigadier General John Echols. Echols was given orders to reoccupy the valley.85

On October 4, General Cox was returned to the Department of western Virginia.86 On October 19, Lightburn's forces, re-enforced by General G. W. Morgan's command from Cumberland Gap, marched up the valley in pursuit of the Confederate forces under General Echols.87 Echols retreated by way of Gauley and Fayetteville to Raleigh, while General Jenkins protected him in the rear by obstructing roads and destroying river transportation.88

On November 2, Brigadier General Scammon was ordered to Gauley Bridge to assume command of Lightburn's division. He was instructed to inspect carefully the old positions as far as Raleigh, and to try to ascertain whether the recent retreat of the Federals had been due to improper location of the fortifications at Fayetteville. He was advised to examine the road up Loup Creek, and any other roads which might be used by the Confederates.89

The latter part of the month, Colonel Lightburn received orders to move his regiment to Fayetteville.90 The fortifications, erected the previous winter, were considered inadequate for a successful defense in case of an attack, so the winter of 1862-63 was spent in strengthening the old works and in constructing new ones. Fort Toland was built at this time. J. E. Ward, a member of the Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, describes it as follows:

The walls are quite thirty feet wide at the base, while the parapet will admit a team and wagon to pass along its surface. There are numerous embrasures facing in all directions. The enclosure will probably be able to accommodate two or three regiments of troops, and facilities are completed to provision a garrison for several months. Around the fort abattis and ditches have been placed, offering serious obstacles to any attempt at assault. It has been calculated that a force of three thousand men could successfully defend Fayetteville against four times that number of assailants.91

There were no important military movements here during the winter. Scouting and reconnaissances were kept up, which sometimes resulted in slight skirmishes. General George Crook was sent to aid Rosecrans in Tennessee, and Scammon was left to care for the Kanawha Valley.92

The following article, by correspondent "D" of the Second Virginia Cavalry, entitled "Fayetteville in War Time, 1862," appeared in the Ironton (Ohio) Register on December 18, 1862:

When I last wrote we were domiciled at Gauley, probably the most God forsaken country on this green earth. Now we are quartered in and near the village of Fayetteville, the shire town of Fayette County.

It is a beautiful location; part of the village is on high ground with here and there small houses in the valley. From all appearances, before the war, the villagers really lived at home and had their respective places of residence surrounded with beautiful trees and shrubs of every kind.

The village before the arrival of our boys was almost entirely de-populated having only one family living in it. Most of the buildings were much mutilated by the soldiers leaving only two or three houses untouched, one of which is a new and spacious brick were General Scammon is now quartered with his staff, and other high officials. Another house when we arrived here was used as a rebel hospital; now it is used by our forces as a hospital.

All the formulae of war are observed by this portion of the Kanawha division, guard as well as picket duty.93

IV

ACTIVITIES IN 1863

As the season for resuming military operation in 1863 approached, it was apparent that the Federals were massing their strength for another advance toward Richmond, and Lee determined to delay and embarrass such an operation by striking at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, over which a large part of the supplies and re-enforcements were sent to the Army of the Potomac. General William E. Jones and Brigadier General John D. Imboden were entrusted with this work.94

In addition to destroying the railroad, they set out to defeat and capture Union forces at Beverly, Philippi, and Buckhannon; to overthrow the reorganized state government at Wheeling; to recruit men for the Confederate service; and to collect supplies.95

They returned by way of Summersville with a large train of supplies, and fearing that the Federals would send a regiment from Fayetteville to intercept them, McCausland was directed to make a demonstration against Fayetteville, and prevent them from detaching any of their force to go to Summersville.96 In the meantime, Imboden was to move from Summersville to the Kanawha Valley, get another supply of salt, and appear in the rear of Fayetteville to aid McCausland.97

At that time, Colonel C. B. White, with the Twelfth Ohio, two companies of the Second West Virginia Cavalry, together with two sections of McMullin's Battery of six 3-inch rifles, was stationed at Fayetteville.98

McCausland had the Thirty-sixth Virginia, six companies of the Sixtieth Virginia, four pieces of Bryan's Battery, and a company of cavalry.99

On May 17, the Federal cavalry outpost located about eight miles from Fayetteville on the Raleigh Road, was informed that the Confederates were in their front, and one company of the Second Virginia Cavalry was sent to aid them. About fifty men had been stationed at Blake's farm. The infantry had been returned to camp the day before. During the night the cavalry was attacked and the pickets driven in.100 On May 18, Captain Robert Wilson was sent with Companies A, F, E, and K to drive back the Confederates. He posted the infantry at the intersection of the Raleigh and Paint Creek Roads, on Blake's farm, about seven miles from Fayetteville. Captain Wilson took the cavalry and moved out five or six miles farther on the Raleigh Road, where he met the Confederates.101 After exchanging a few shots, he fell back to Blake's farm. He then sent Lieutenant Joseph Ankrom with twelve men up the Raleigh Road and a certain Lieutenant Medlicott, also with twelve men, up the mountain road near Blake's farm, to try to find out the strength of the Confederate forces. Lieutenant Ankrom reported about one hundred Confederates on the Raleigh Road.102

Early on the morning of May 18, Lieutenant William Gotfeldter, with about twenty men of the Twelfth Ohio, was sent to reconnoiter. Before they were hardly started, a picket reported having seen fifteen Confederates, who had fallen back before the Federal pickets. Two squads of cavalry were ordered to pursue these men, but about this time the Confederates advanced in force, and the whole Federal force drew up to repel them.103

Company K, Twelfth Ohio, was ordered to the crossroads two miles in the rear to hold the road, but before they were in position the Confederates appeared on both the front and left flank, attacking the pickets, who were forced to fall back to the main body. In the meantime, at Huddleston's bridge, Company K was attacked in the rear. The three remaining companies of infantry under Lieutenant Gotfeldter were ordered back to camp. About the time they reached the cover of the woods, the Confederate cavalry appeared in force. The remaining cavalry, under Captain Robert Wilson, set out to re-enforce Company K and were under heavy fire all the way. They returned the fire and succeeded in reaching the outside fort. Shortly afterwards, the Confederates got their artillery into position and began shelling the woods. They were answered by Captain McMullin's Battery in the outside fort. The firing was kept up until after dark, at which time both sides stopped and the troops rested on the ground.104

On May 19, about five a.m., Company K reached camp, having gone around the right flank of the Confederates.105

On May 20, the Confederates again opened fire upon the Federals. Firing was rapid for a while, but diminished about noon, and by two o'clock ceased altogether.106

Upon investigation, it was found that the Confederates were retreating. Colonel White of the Twelfth Ohio received permission to follow. He started about dark with about two thousand men and a part of McMullin's Battery. After a pursuit of about twenty-five miles, they gave up the chase and returned to camp.107

The Federal loss from this attack was two killed, seven wounded, and nine missing.108

This demonstration set a precedent for modern warfare when Sergeant Milton W. Humphreys of Bryan's Battery attempted to dislodge entrenched Federals by indirect cannon fire over an intervening forest. Humphrey's howitzer was placed on a plateau at the end of a straight opening which had been cut through the woods and ran directly toward the Federal fort. He opened fire and the Federals answered "so vigorously and accurately with several guns that we were compelled to move to a place nearby where we could not be seen for the timber in front of us, and the smoke behind us rising from the woods which were on fire."109

Little was accomplished during the summer of 1863, the principal duties of the garrison at Fayetteville being that of scouting. On July 13, the Twelfth Ohio marched again the Confederates at Piney Creek, but the latter retreated, so the regiment returned to Fayetteville. On July 17, the Twelfth Ohio and Ninety-first Ohio were sent to Ohio to assist in capturing John Morgan, after which they again returned to Fayetteville. During the months of August and September, they were employed in constructing fortifications. On November 4, both regiments (Twelfth and Ninety-first Ohio) marched against Lewisburg, but the Confederates had retired so they again returned to Fayetteville. On December 9, they made another move against Lewisburg, but finding no enemy returned to Fayetteville and began to prepare winter quarters.110

During the summer of 1863, Chaplain Charles L. Allen of the Twelfth Ohio spent much time trying to turn the attention of the soldiers to their moral and spiritual welfare. A large reading room at the encampment was supplied with magazines and newspapers. Meetings were held every night, and many conversions took place.111 Schools for mental culture were also organized. Tactics was also studied and whenever the weather was suitable, considerable time was spent drilling.112 The following excerpt from Ward's Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Infantry will give a better picture of how monotony was driven from the Federal encampment at Fayetteville:

Law was perused until Blackstone and Kent became as `Household Words.' Medicine and surgery were at one time familiar studies, and the theories of Hodge, Retizus, Carson, Dunglison, Wilson and others, formed topics of lively criticism and dispute. Astronomy received no trivial consideration, and the philomathean peers of Mitchell and Agassiz gloried in their perfect comprehension of the planetary system. After these came a musical fever, or mania. This Babal of discords was supposed to have originated in the organization of a brass band. The lively strains of reveille, which one Sunday morning awoke the slumbering regiment, gave birth to its adoption, and accordingly began the importation of instrument and `instructors without a master.' There were endless quantities and qualities of cat-gut, dog-skin, bamboo, box-wood, keys, boys, frets, drum-sticks, tubes, bones, brass, steel, etc., comprised in flutes, fifes, guitars, banjos, tambourines, clarionets, flutinas, flageolets, drums, and several hundred jews harps. Positive demonstration is necessary to fully appreciate the prolonged soiree which was had. Strains minus melody; chords all discords; notes regardless of duration! What must have been Apollo's indignation to witness his deific self thus burlesqued, and to perceive the general dissonance in which his glorious attributes were parodied! There were minglings of appogiaturas, swells, diminuendos, shakes, majors and minors; simultaneous renderings of airs in melts, pretissimo, doloroso, and con impeto styles. Nothing could establish a more complete exhibition of confusion of horrid noises and strange sounds. `Doley Jones' clamored incessantly in the left wing of the regiment, and `Uncle Ned,' or some defunct cotemporary (sic) was perpetually hanging up the `shovel and hoe' in the right, while intermediate issued a medley in which `Sweet Alice' navigated the `Swanee Ribber,' `Diving like a feather and swimming like a stone,' and `Ellen Bayne' danced the `Chrystal Scottische' to the tune of `Sweet Afton,' in company with `Rory O'More,' with a `heel in the hole of her stocking,' held in the sturdy embrace of a `Saileur boy, only nineteen years old,' whose fast `Life on the ocean wave' with `Maggie by his side,' lent a skill to his `Hop about and skip about and jump just so,' which elicited uproarous applause from `De gal wid de blue josey on,' and `Her hair it curled so very tight she could not shut her mouth.' Several glee clubs and an excellent minstrel troupe performed very creditably on many occasions.113

V

ACTIVITIES IN 1864

In February 1864, General George Crook was detached from the Department of the Cumberland and assigned to the command of the Third Division, Department of West Virginia, then in the Kanawha Valley.114

About the middle of March, the Federal forces at Fayetteville began their spring campaign by making a reconnaissance to Summersville. The weather was severe, the roads bad, and the march a hard one. They found no enemy there so they soon returned to Fayetteville.115

General U. S. Grant had planned a general movement to start about the first of May. General Crook, who had been re-enforced by a cavalry force under General William Averell and by four regiments of infantry taken from troops stationed along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was to move from the Kanawha region through Lewisburg; Colonel Thomas M. Harris was to move from Beverly, and General Franz Sigel was to move up the Shenandoah Valley and join Crook and Averell near Staunton.116 The purpose of the whole movement was a raid on Dublin Depot and New River Bridge on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad.117

The destruction of the railroad would cut the communications of Generals James Longstreet and Sam Jones in east Tennessee and compel the Confederates to abandon that country. It would be impossible to reconstruct the railroad during the campaign and might result in the evacuation of Richmond.118

The supplies and transportation for this great movement were provided at Fayetteville during February. On May 1, General Crook ordered the forces there to be ready to move at a moment's notice. On May 2, the other regiments and artillery began to arrive.119

Captain J. H. Prather of the Ninety-first Ohio said:

The long roll sounded through General Crook's camp at Fayetteville, W. Va., on the morning of May 3rd, 1864, and was greeted by thunderous applause from the throats of 7,000 Union soldiers, and perhaps in little less than an hour the column was in motion headed for south West Virginia, via Raleigh, Flat Top Mountain, Princeton and Shannon's Roads.120

Besides those left in the hospital at Fayetteville, a detachment was left on guard duty.121 The raid was successfully for the Federals. After the march on Lynchburg, the army marched back down the Kanawha Valley. This was the last important movement in this region. J. H. Abbot, a Confederate captain, tells of making a raid on Fayetteville on July 4 and capturing some sutler wagons and a large quantity of goods,122 but no mention of this is found in the Official Records.

1. J. T. Peters and H. B. Carden, History of Fayette County, West Virginia (Charleston, 1926), 384.

2. The Fayette Journal, November 2, 1911.

3. Kanawha Valley Star, June 4, 1861.

4. Fayette County Minute Book, June 1857-July 1861, 244.

5. Ibid., 244.

6. Kanawha Valley Star, June 4, 1861.

7. Fayette County Minute Book, 246.

8. J. D. Cox, Military Reminiscences of the Civil War, 2 vols. (New York, 1900), I, 80-81.

9. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 70 vols. in 128 books, (Washington, 1881-1901), 1 ser., II, 762. Hereafter cited as Official Records.

10. Ibid., 1 ser., II, 908-909.

11. Ibid., 1 ser., II, 243, 788; Clement A. Evans, ed., Confederate Military History, West Virginia, 12 vols. (Atlanta, 1899), II, 7, 26.

12. Official Records, 1 ser., II 951-952.

13. Ibid., 1 ser., II 838; Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 38.

14. Official Records, 1 ser., II, 906.

15. Ibid., 1 ser., LI, pt. 1, 416-417; Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 28.

16. Official Records, 1 ser., II, 293.

17. Ibid., 1 ser., II, 1011-1012; Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 30.

18. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 768-769.

19. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 78.

20. Official Records, 1 ser., II, 762.

21. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 105.

22. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 1.

23. Ibid., 1 ser., V, 792.

24. Evans, ed., Confederate Military History, II, 34-35.

25. Ibid., II, 35.

26. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 1; 1 ser., LI, pt. 1, 457.

27. Ibid., 1 ser., LI, pt. 1, 36; Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 35.

28. Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 36.

29. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 2; Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 36.

30. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 122-124: Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 36; Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 99-100.

31. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 283, 823.

32. Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 37-39.

33. Ibid., II, 39.

34. Ibid., II, 42.

35. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 2; Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 43.

36. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 253; Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 126.

37. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 900-901.

38. C. H. Ambler, West Virginia: The Mountain State (New York, 1940), 357-358.

39. Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 45.

40. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 253.

41. Ibid., 1 ser., V, 253-254.

42. Ibid., 1 ser., V, 253.

43. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 140.

44. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 273.

45. Ibid., 1 ser., V, 278.

46. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 141.

47. Official Records, 1 ser., V, 278-279.

48. Ibid., 1 ser., V, 279.

49. Ibid., 1 ser., V, 253-254.

50. Charles Richard Williams, ed., Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, 2 vols., (New York, 1922), II, 147.

51. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 148.

52. Williams, Rutherford Birchard Hayes, II, 157.

53. Ibid., II, 147.

54. Ibid., II, 152-153.

55. Ibid., II, 157.

56. Ibid., II, 149.

57. Ibid., II, 161.

58. Ibid., II, 164.

59. Ibid., II, 170-171.

60. Ibid., II, 166.

61. Ambler, West Virginia, 358.

62. Official Records, 1 ser., XII, pt. 3, 53.

63. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 204.

64. Official Records, 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1058-1059.

65. Ambler, West Virginia, 362.

66. Official Records, 1 ser., XII, pt. 3, 946.

67. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1069.

68. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1059.

69. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1079.

70. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1069.

71. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1088.

72. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1081-1082.

73. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1061.

74. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1082.

75. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1088-1089.

76. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1061-1062.

77. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1062.

78. Milton W. Humphreys, Military Operations, 1861-1863, Fayette County, (pamphlet published privately, Fayetteville, West Virginia, 1926), 16.

79. Official Records, 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1081-1085.

80. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1058.

81. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1080.

82. Ibid., 1 ser., XIX, pt. 1, 1060.

83. Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 67-68.

84. Ambler, West Virginia, 362.

85. Official Records, 1 ser., XIX, pt. 2, 666-667.

86. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 391.

87. Whitelaw Reid, Ohio in the War: Her Statesman, Her Generals, and Soldiers, 2 vols., (New York, 1868), II, 919.

88. Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 69.

89. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 414.

90. Theodore F. Lang, Loyal West Virginia (Baltimore, 1865), 249.

91. J. E. D. Ward, Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Ripley, Ohio, 1864), 61.

92. Cox, Military Reminiscences, I, 426.

93. "Fayetteville in War Time, 1862," Ironton Ohio Register, December 18, 1862.

94. Evans, Confederate Military History, II, 73-74.

95. Official Records, I, XXV, pt. 2, 652.

96. Ibid., 1 ser., XXV, pt. 2, 797-798.

97. Ibid., 1 ser., XXV, pt. 2, 799-800.

98. Humphreys, Military Operations, 22.

99. Ibid., 21.

100. Frank Moore, ed., The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American Events, with Documents, Narratives, Illustrative Incidents, Poetry, etc., 10 vols. (New York, 1862-1865), VI, 621.

101. Official Records, 1 ser., XXV, pt. 1, 1110.

102. Moore, The Rebellion Record, VI, 622.

103. Ibid., VI, 622.

104. Ibid., VI, 622.

105. Ibid., VI, 622.

106. Official Records, 1 ser., XXV, pt. 1, 1110.

107. Moore, The Rebellion Record, VI, 622.

108. Official Records, 1 ser., XXV, pt. 1, 1110-1111.

109. Humphreys, Military Operations, 23.

110. A. H. Windsor, History of the Ninety-First Regiment, O. V. I. (Cincinnati, 1865), 41; Reid, Ohio in the War, II, 90.

111. Ward, Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 64.

112. Windsor, History of the Ninety-First Regiment, 42.

113. Ward, Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 68-69.

114. Reid, Ohio in the War, I, 799-800.

115. Windsor, History of the Ninety-First Regiment, 42.

116. Lang, Loyal West Virginia, 111.

117. Windsor, History of the Ninety-First Regiment, 42.

118. Williams, Rutherford Birchard Hayes, II, 450-451.

119. Windsor, History of the Ninety-First Regiment, 42.

120. J. H. Prather, "When the Long Roll Sounded in Gen. Crook's Camp, Fayetteville, May 2, 1864." Private Collection of Newspaper Clippings, owned by C. A. Goddard, Fayetteville, West Virginia.

121. Windsor, History of the Ninety-First Regiment, 43.

122. Peters and Carden, History of Fayette County, 218.


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