Prepared by C. B. Allman
Limestone Community is located in Washington District, on State Route No. 6, in the heart of Marshall County. It includes the neighborhoods of Wayman's Ridge, Wood Hill, Limestone, Dowler's Ridge, Fairview, and Oak Dale.
Wayman's Ridge derived its name from a family named "Wayman," who were early settlers on that ridge.
Wood Hill derived its name from an early settler who had his cabin on the hill there.
Limestone was called Maizeville by the Indians because the soil grew maize so well. This name was changed to Maysville and later the Zanes changed the name to Limestone because there is so much limestone here.
Dowler's Ridge derived its name from George Dowler who settled there about 1796.
Fairview derived its name because it was in a fair view of the river and the pioneer could spy the Indians coming.
Oak Dale derived its name from the location of the school which was in a dale and a fine grove of oak trees nearby.
Limestone has always been the community center because it was the location of the post office.
There are evidences of the Indians in this community in the Indian grave yards that are found on the Hill farm on Wayman's Ridge owned by the late Hickman Hill. Indian darts are still found in the fields; there are marks that must have been made by the red man on certain rocks found along the streams; and the stories of Wetzel, the Zanes, and other Indian hunters, all give accounts of Indian activities and life here in Limestone Community. Last, but not least, the following description of Indian customs told by Cornplanter Cornstalk Elinipsico (Cornstalk's son) and Logan the Mingo to the early settlers and handed down from generation to generation is a true picture of the Indians in this community.
Maizeville or Limestone was an Indian village and a place where the council meetings, etc., were held, because it was located on such high land. This land was the above chiefs' stamping ground and the customs related by them of the first inhabitants of this community make it doubly interesting.
The Indians were constantly on the move during the warmer season of the year. Their longest tarryings were when they settled for the cold season. Huts, usually fifteen feet long, were built of poles laid one upon the other and held in place by posts driven into the ground at each end. In this way two walls were raised about four feet high, which were the sides of the cabin. At the center of each end forked pieces of wood were driven into the ground and a stout beam laid in the forks which served as a ridgepole. Slanting rafters were placed on the two sides and covered with lynn bark.
At the ends of the huts split timbers were set up leaving spaces for two doors, one at each end. The chinks were filled with moss by the squaws. Bearskins were hung at the doors. Fires were built along the middle of the cabin by the women. They usually settled in their cabin about the first of December for the winter.
The Indians were very hospitable, but they were voracious eaters and even wasted their food when they had plenty and would lie idly about until it was gone. They were greatly offended if anyone attempted to hide anything for the future, and never refused to give food to anyone so long as they had a morsel in their house. They had no regular mealtimes but ate when they were hungry.
Their food in the winter consisted of hominy, roast fowls, corn meal pounded in a hominy block, bear's heat, venison, and beaver. In the spring, they had maple sugar, bear's oil, and dry venison. In the summer vegetables and herbs were used to supplement the meat diet.
Maple sap was caught in bark vessels and boiled in brass kettles, when they had them, otherwise they let Jack Frost make maple molasses for them by exposing the sap in bark vessels and removing the ice as it formed over the surface, repeating this process several times. As saccharine particles do not freeze, the liquor left in the dishes soon became very brown and sweet.
When the Indians went bear hunting they searched about until they found a tree that had been scratched by bears climbing and discovered whether the hole was large enough to admit the animals. Whenever it was possible the tree was felled in such a way that it would fall with the opening near the ground, and one of the hunters would climb up and drive Bruin from his retreat. Sometimes rotten wood was gathered and tied in bunches with bark and fastened on the end of a long pole. One of the Indians would climb a neighboring tree and place the punk in the cavity of the bear tree, and then set fire to it. Presently the bear would come forth and be shot by one of the hunters below.
The Indian worshiped a Superior Being as does the white man, and
the Indian often asked the "Great Spirit" for blessings in a form
of ceremony called a prayer. He always turned to the sun when he
prayed and knelt on a stump, if one was near. The following is an
Oh, ho, ho, ho.
O Great Being! I thank thee that I have the use of my legs; that
I am able to walk about, and run down turkeys and deer; that I know
thou art a helper and bearer, and, therefore, I will call upon
Oh, ho, ho, ho.
Grant that my knees and ankles may be well and that I may be
able to run and jump logs as I did last fall.
Oh, ho, ho, ho.
Grant that in this voyage I am about to start on I may be able
to kill bears, great big fat bears; grant that I may get food for
Oh, ho, ho, ho.
Grant that I may kill plenty of fat turkeys to stew with my bear
Oh, ho, ho, ho.
Grant that the rain may come down so that the corn will grow
big; great big ears so that one ear will be enough for a dozen
hungry Indians. And now, O Great Being, thou knowest that I am a
great lover of tobacco and I know not when I may get anymore. I now
make a present of the last I have unto thee as a free burnt
offering; therefore I expect thou wilt hear and grant these
requests and I thy servant will return thee thanks and love thee
for thy gifts.
Oh, ho, ho, ho.
Grant that all this may come true, O Great Being! I ask in thy name. Amen.
An aged Indian who spent many years among the white people of this community gave the following description of the Indians' method of courting to an old pioneer of this community, and it is said to be true.
"Indian, when he sees squaw which he like, he go to him (they had no feminine gender in their vocabulary), place his two fore fingers aside each other, make them look like one, look squaw in the face, and see him smile which is all, and he say 'Yes,' so he take him home. No danger he be cross. No, no, squaw know too well what Indian do if he cross. Throw him away and take another; squaw have to eat meat. Squaw do everything to please husband; he do same to please squaw; live happy."
The Indian took his wife on trial. He built a house and provided meat for food and skins for clothing. She agreed to cook and raise corn and vegetables while he hunted or fished. If both performed these duties they were man and wife. If not, they separated. The woman's labor was light in the house. She had but one pot to clean and no scrubbing to do, little to wash, and that not very often. She cut the wood, raised the corn, baked the bread in the ashes, and cooked the meat or fish in the pot.
When they moved the wife carried the baggage. She never complained because she said her husband must avoid hard labor and stiff muscles if he was to be an expert hunter, and provide her with meat to eat and furs to wear. The Indian liked to see his wife well clothed and gave her all the skins he was able to get. The more he did for her, the more he was esteemed by the community.
While all domestic labor was performed by the Indian women, it is said that an Indian would go forty or fifty miles for a mess of cranberries to satisfy his wife's longing. In 1762 it is reported there was a famine and a sick Indian woman had a desire for a mess of Indian corn. Her husband set out to find it for his wife and after traveling 100 miles he returned with as much as would fill the crown of a hat, for which he gave his horse in exchange and walked back, bringing the saddle and corn with him.
The husband seldom quarreled with his wife, even if she gave him cause. In such a case he would take his gun and go into the woods without saying a word and remain even a week or a fortnight, living on the meat he killed. The wife was not only kept in suspense, uncertain whether he would return again, but she was soon reported as a bad and quarrelsome woman. When he did return she showed him by her attentions that she had repented, though neither of them spoke a single word about the matter that had passed, but began again as if nothing had happened.
The history of Limestone Community, after the coming of the white men, dates back to the Discovery of the Ohio River in 1669 by Robert LaSalle.
The Ohio Company got a patent in 1748 for the land included in this community in the 500,000 acres in their patent.
In 1770 when the Zane Brothers settled at Wheeling they soon explored the woods in this vicinity and in 1782 Patrick Henry, then governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, bequeathed to John Zane a certain tract of land containing four hundred acres on the waters of Grave and Wheeling creeks. John Zane died without having made a will and the estate fell to his two children, Sarah Ann and John. Sarah transferred her interest to John as recorded in the indenture given on pages 8 and 9 of this history.
During the Lord Dunmore's War there was a lot of unoccupied land in this vicinity as far as pioneer settlers were concerned, but, of course, wolves, bears, deer, and wild turkeys had full possession, and there were only Indian trails through the woods.
This community was in the heart of the finest hunting grounds on the frontier as proved by its early settlements, since the early settler depended largely on his rifle for food and clothing in the early days.
In 1796 Jonathan Zane accompanied by three or four other men, whose names we do not know, and an Indian guide blazed the first government road through what is now Marshall County, from Wheeling to Maizeville (later Maysville, now Limestone). Prior to this road there were only the paths made by wild beasts or wandering Indians.
Zane was employed as an Indian spy by the government. It is said the Indian guide hid behind a tree more than once and tried to shoot Zane and his men while they were engaged in this work. They tried to locate the road as near the top of the hills as possible so that the snow would not drift the road full and make travel difficult.
Cabin homes began to dot the hills of this vicinity after 1770, and by 1832 several adventures at permanent settlements were made. The following paragraphs are taken from one of the early wills in the community. It was made more than a hundred years ago and is of interest because of the prominent part the Zanes had in the early history of the community.
WILL of EBENEZER ZANE Dated Aug. 3, 1811.
Will Book No. 2, page 21.
Ohio County records.
I, Ebenezer Zane, being of sound mind and memory, do hereby make and ordain this my last will and testament, as followeth, to-wit:
4th. I give and devise to my sons, Noah, Samuel, and Daniel, and their Heirs forever all my land in Wood County, Virginia, as also all my land on the waters of Grave Creek and Wheeling Creek in the County of Ohio.
11th. I appoint my wife, Elizabeth, and my sons, Noah, Samuel, and Daniel, Executrix and Executors of this my last will and testament, hereby annulling and revoking all other wills heretofore made by me.
13th. In case of any of the persons to whom real or personal estate is devised by this my last will and testament should die before my death, I will direct that the legacy or devise given to such person by this my last will shall descend and go to the person or persons who may be the legal heirs and representatives of such deceased person at the time of my death.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my
seal this third day of August, in the year of our Lord, one
thousand eight hundred and eleven.
EBENEZER ZANE (SEAL)
Signed, sealed, published, and declared by Ebenezer Zane, as his
last will and testament in the presence of us.
NOTE:-A codicil here appears which does not affect the 500 acres.
The following land title shows transfer of land in the community in 1832.
"This Indenture made the twenty-fifth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, between Abraham Vanhoy of the city of Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsylvania, M. D., and Sarah Ann, his wife, of the one part, and Jonathan Zane of the city of Wheeling, county of Ohio, and state of Virginia, M. D., of the other part.
WHEREAS: by virtue and in consideration of land office Preemption WARRANT number two thousand one hundred and seventy and issued the first day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, there was granted by Letters patent dated Dec. 28, 1784, by the commonwealth of Virginia and executed by the Governor thereof, and duly recorded unto John Zane a certain tract or parcel of land CONTAINING four hundred acres by survey bearing date, Dec. 9, 1783, lying and being in the vicinity of Ohio, aforesaid, situated on the waters of Grave Creek and Wheeling Creek and bounded as follows: beginning at two walnuts and a poplar on the top of a ridge corner to Isaac Zane, thence north forty degrees East two hundred and forty-four poles to a sugar tree in the head of a hollow, etc.
Whereas, the said John Zane being so there of seized and died interstate leaving issue two children, to-wit: the said Sarah Ann (intermarried with the said A. Vanhoy) party hereto and John Zane whereby the same descended to and became vested in the said Sarah Ann and John Zane agreeably to the interstate laws of the said Commonwealth of Virginia. NOW THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH that the said Abraham Vanhoy and Sarah Ann, his wife, for and in consideration of the sum of Four Hundred and Eight Dollars lawful money of the United States of America unto them in hand by the said Jonathan Zane will and truly paid at end before the sealing and delivery hereof the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged have granted, bargained, sold, conveyed, and confirmed and by these presents do grant, bargain, sell, convey, and confirm unto the said Jonathan Zane, his Heirs and assigns forever one full equal and undivided moiety or clear half part of, in, and to, the above described tract or parcel of land with its appurtenances and all the estate, right, title, interest, property, claim, and demands whatsoever of them. The said Abraham Vanhoy and Sarah Ann, his wife or either of them either at Law or in Equity of, in, and to, the game TO HAVE AND TO HOLD all the one full equal and undivided moiety or clear half part of the above described tract or parcel of land hereby granted unto the said Jonathan Zane, his heirs, and assigns against the said Abraham Vanhoy, and Sarah Ann, his wife, and against all and every other person or persons whomsoever lawfully claiming to claim the same or any part thereof by, from, or under him, them, or any of them, shall and WILL WARRANT and forever defend. IN WITNESS whereof the said parties have hereunto set their hands and seals.
Dated the day and year first herein written,
A. VANHOY (SEAL)
SARAH ANN VANHOY (SEAL)
City of Philadelphia, State of Penn.
Acknowledged Oct. 25, 1832, A. D.
On the back of this deed we find the following: Ohio County,
Admitted to record Deed Book 17, Folios 47687, County of Ohio,
State of Virginia, Dec. 26, 1832.
Teste. Jno. McColloch, Clerk.
Abraham Vanhoy and wife to Jonathan Zane.
This title included parts of the farms now owned by W. P. Wisman, C. H. Gray, Elbert Francis, M. C. Koontz, J. D. Coffield, W. O. Aston, and A. R. Hicks, and possibly others.
Another land title gives the following: October 7, 1831, John Zane of the Township of Germantown, County of Philadelphia, and Maria Antoinette, his wife, conveyed 400 acres of land situated on the waters of Grave and Wheeling creeks to Jonathan Zane of the Borough of Wheeling, County of Ohio, and State of Virginia for the sum of $600. Witnessed by Jedidiah Stone and G. B. Strong.
A title dated November 4, 1843, states that John Criswell and Rebecca, his wife, sold and conveyed 341/2 acres of land to Benjamin Hill for the sum of $276, in the County of Marshall, and state of Virginia.
We can readily learn from these land titles how permanent the settlements were in this community by 1831-32.
Benjamin Hill was one of the prominent early settlers and his cabin was near where Elbert Francis' house now stands. He was born in Ireland and migrated to America, and settled in Wheeling in 1818. He settled in this community in 1833. The following is a copy of his naturalization papers.
MARSHALL COUNTY COURT, AUGUST TERM, 1834.
Benjamin Hill, a native of Ireland this day applied to the court to be admitted to become a citizen of the United States, whereupon the said Benjamin Hill exhibited a copy of the record of Marshall County Court, showing that he arrived in the United States more than five years previous to the date hereof and that more than two years ago he had declared on oath in the said court his intention to become a citizen of the United States. Which record is in these words:
Marshall County Court, May term, 1840. Benjamin Hill, a native of Ireland, who has lately arrived in the United States and is desirous of being naturalized a citizen thereof, this day appeared in court and in pursuance of the act of Congress made a report of himself which report is in the following words, to-wit: "I, Benjamin Hill, make the following report of myself to the County Court of Marshall County in the State of Virginia that is to say, I was born in Ireland in the County Devy on December 25, 1798, being now in the forty-second year of my age; that in the month of April in the year 1817 I removed to the United States, and in 1817 settled in Virginia where I have resided for the last 21 years in the County of Ohio and Marshall; that I was a subject of Victoria Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and owe allegiance to that Monarch and none other. And I intend to remain in the State of Virginia, one of the United States, and to become a citizen thereof,
Given under my hand this 18th day of May, 1840.
And thereupon the said Benjamin Hill this day declared on oath that it is his bona fide intention to become a citizen of the United States and to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign Prince, Potentate, State, or Sovereignty, whatever and particularly to Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and it being proved to the satisfaction of the court by the testimony of John Parriott and Walter Gray, citizens of the United States, who were examined as witnesses on oath that since the arrival of the said Benjamin Hill, as aforesaid, he has resided within the United States five years, at least, and within the state one year, at least, and during that time has behaved as a man of good moral character attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States and well disposed to the good order and happenings of the same.
He, the said Benjamin Hill, declared an oath in open Court that
he will support the Constitution of the United States and that he
doth absolutely and entirely renounce and reject all allegiance and
fidelity to every foreign Prince, Potentate, State or Sovereignty
whatever and particularly to Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland and thereupon the said Benjamin Hill
is admitted a citizen of the said United States.
A teste: JAMES D. MORRIS, Clerk.
Other prominent early settlers of this community include the following: John Goudy, who was born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, in 1804. He moved to Wheeling in 1848 and to Washington District, Marshall County, in 1869.
John Jefferson was born in what is now Marshall County on March 7,1819. His father served in the War of 1812. John S. Riggs was born in Ohio County on November 19, 1821 . John Caldwell was one of the oldest settlers of the Northern panhandle of West Virginia.
George Jones migrated from Maryland to Ohio County as early as 1785. His son, Jeremiah Jones, had three sons in the Union Army in the Civil War.
Geo. W. Blake and Warren Blake were prominent settlers in this community.
W. J. Burley served in the Union Army during the Civil War and was a prominent farmer of this community.
L. L. Newman was a graduate of Moundsville Academy, and was elected State Senator in 1 878.
John Criswell, Willis Rush, Emanuel Francis, Joseph Burch, Joseph Wilson, P. Jones, William O. Powell, Edward Powell, Isaac Crow, J. Drummond, John Briggs, and Levi Cunningham were prominent early settlers of the Limestone, Wood Hill, and Fairview neighborhoods.
Geo. Hill, Ephriam Wayman, Wm. Burgess, Mr. Zink, Mr. Price, and Mr. Parriott were the pioneer settlers of Wayman's Ridge.
George Dowler settled on Dowler's Ridge in 1796. An old family graveyard may still be found on many farms which will explain a lot of the early settlements and pioneer names.
Hunting and Trapping
Deer drives were often held in Washington District in pioneer times by hunters who wished the sport of killing game. A large tract of game land was surrounded by lines of men so that each person could see or hear those next to him. The whole company acted under a captain who was generally mounted. At the signal of a horn every man moved toward a common center at an equal distance from each other making as much noise as possible. Trees were blazed in the center as a "guide" and one of the sub-officers proceeded along each "guide" as the hunt progressed.
The blazed trees in the center were within rifle range. When the line was reached a halt was made and every gap was closed. By this time a herd of deer might be seen going from one line to another.
The second ring was usually drawn around the foot of a lawn or swamp. If the drive had been successful turkeys could be seen flying among the trees as well as deer jumping and running. If there were too many men for the deer to break through the line they would leap over the top of the men's heads, the men striking at them with sticks, guns, pitchforks, etc. Often the deer were shot down in heaps. The wolf now might be seen skulking through the bushes hoping to escape the hunters. Occasionally a panther and bear would be driven in and usually shot, if it wasn't lucky enough to escape through the lines.
Dogs and scouts were used to run down the wounded deer that escaped through the lines. After the game was all gathered the hunters would assemble in the center for a count and distribution. A great feast and barbecue often followed this sport.
J. H. Hill, who died in 1924 at the age of 97 years, killed a young deer in the hollow known as the North Fork below where Z. L. Simmons lived in 1928. This was the last deer killed in Marshall County.
Sometimes the bear or panther would become so annoying that a whole community would turn out for a drive. The wolves used to play havoc with the sheep and deer which they chased in packs.
Wolves were often taken in steel traps, but more readily in log pens with the roof sloping inward on all sides and open in the center. A half devoured carcass of a sheep or calf was placed in the pen. The wolf climbed up the outside of the cabin and entered at the opening in the roof but once inside he could neither escape nor throw the pen down.
Bruin had a preference for pigs and many a settler's cabin was thrown into excitement at night by cries from the pig pen. Bruin would spring upon his victim, grasp it in his forelegs, erect himself on his hind legs, and walk off with his prey. A bear could make his way through the woods faster than a man on foot could follow, but the dogs would soon force him to drop his porker. If undisturbed the squeals would become weaker and weaker and finally cease altogether.
If the pig was recovered it was so badly hurt that it required killing and would be used as bait so that Bruin would be "hoist by his own petard." If a hog was partly eaten by a bear he would return the next night for the balance. A large steel trap with heavy jaws and a long drag chain with iron claws in the end was used to catch him. The trap was not fastened but the chain always caught in the brush leaving a trail so that the bear was easily overtaken by a man and dog.
Trapping wild turkeys was a favorite sport in the pioneer days. A pen was built with a trap door in the side or corner. Bait was scattered through the door and all around the pen. The trap door was suspended by a string that led to a catch within the pen. While picking and scratching among the bait the catch would be struck and down would come the door. Sometimes a hole was made in the ground under one side of the pen large enough for the turkey to enter. A trail of bait was laid through this hole to the outside. When the turkeys were once inside and finding themselves confined they would lift their heads and never have sense enough to find their way out by the same hole.
In pioneer times the country was much infested by rattlesnakes. The poison from the bites of rattlesnakes never affected hogs and fortunately they were fond of snakes, and would rid a woods of them in a short time. Some hogs could chase and kill a rattlesnake almost as quickly as a wolf could chase and kill a deer. Trailing the snakes through the woods either by sight or scent, the hogs would rush at them with swiftness and boldness, regardless of their fangs and jumping on them with their fore feet would soon dispatch them.
The pioneers of Limestone Community married young, the brides often being only 15 or 16 years of age and the grooms 18 or 20 years old. Courtships were always brief; often only a few weeks, and usually not longer than a few months. There were fewer divorces in those days with the short courtships than today with our long acquaintances.
If the circuit rider or minister happened to be in the community, the wedding ceremony was performed by him, otherwise the squire or justice of the peace administered the wedding vows.
All the pioneers of Limestone Community turned out for a wedding, as it was always followed by a rousing serenade and dance which often lasted all night. During the pioneer days the bottle of liquor was always at the frolic, too. Every man, old and young, always tried to be the first to dance with the bride which was considered an honor.
The pioneers of Limestone Community never cared much for fancy clothes for a wedding ceremony. Often the bride wore only homespun clothing and the groom usually wore buckskin trousers and moccasins.
The wedding ceremonies were performed at the log churches when performed by the ministers, and at a cabin or under a tree when performed by the squire.
The newly married couples of Limestone Community nearly always settled near their parents, built their cabin, and made their own furniture, doing all the work themselves, except the raising of the house which was done by having a house raising or frolic. The log raisers were then entitled to a good old square dance, the night following, to warm up the new house, as the pioneers called it. That was their pay for the hard labor in raising the new house.
Among the Pioneers of Limestone Community there was always someone who could play the "fiddle," and was always ready to play for a square dance. It was a common occurrence to hear the caller's voice keeping time to the music and step of the dancers with such figures as "Dish rag wring, and a bear hug swing;" "Chase the groom around the world, and the bride around the moon;" "Single file, Indian style;" "Now the oyster, now the clam, Oh, that girl to fairy- land;" and a score of others that had the genuine dance ring to them.
J. Wesley Crow, Sr., and J. M. Poyles, the only Civil War veterans from Limestone Community who were living in 1928, said they could remember the first tomato they ever saw. It was kept on the mantle for an ornament, and when anyone examined it he used a rag to handle it with, for fear it would poison him. Tomatoes were then sometimes called "Love Apples."
These men also report that their mothers and grandmothers would hoe corn until noon, knock their hoes off the handles, put them on the fire to get them hot, and then put some dough on the hoe blades and bake it. This bread was called "hoe cake." Sometimes they would roll the dough into a ball, put it in the fire, cover it with ashes and coals, and bake it. Corn bread was most common in those days.
The first lamps used in Limestone Community were iron. The buttons were made of leather gourds. The homes were all log, and usually of one room. Sometimes there was a loft in the house and pegs were driven in the wall or a ladder built against it to serve the purpose of a stairway.
The large open fire place was the scene of the spinning wheel for the women, while the men often made shoes, tanned hides, made axe handles and other useful things around the firesides during the long winter evenings. Thus the cabin was also a shop or factory.
Husking bees were held during the autumn in the evenings, and when a young man got a red ear of corn he was entitled to kiss the prettiest girl there.
The corn and wheat were ground by the tread mill or grist mill. All the pioneers from Limestone Community went to the Martin Mill on Stull's Run or to the Pott's Mill on Middle Grave Creek to get their grinding done. These were the two natural meeting places for the people of the community and served as places for the exchange of news, while they were waiting for their grinding, as there were no newspapers circulating in the community in those days.
The county infirmary is located in this community and in pioneer times there was a pauper auction once or twice a year. At this auction the paupers -were sold to the lowest bidder who agreed to take care of and provide food, clothing, and shelter until the next auction for the amount he bid. The bidder had to take many chances; but there were fewer paupers according to the percent of population under that system than there are today under the present system.
It is said John Riggs of this community bought a white pauper at an auction for ten dollars and one cent. Mr. Riggs was considered one of the best men to the poor we ever had in this county.
The list of property described in the following copy of a public sale bill gives a very good idea of the community life in the early part of the nineteenth century.
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
Having sold my farm I will sell at public auction two miles west of Maysville and four miles east of Elizabethtown, Virginia, on Saturday, September 26, 1830, the following property, to-wit:
"One buck negro 25 years old, weight 210 pounds; 4 negro wenches
from 18 to 24 years old; 3 negro boys 6 years old; 13 hoes; one
pine sled; 6 yoke oxen, well broke; 10 yoke oxen with hickory bows;
2 ox carts with 6-inch stress; one saddle pony, 5 years old; one
side saddle; 3 double shovel plows, 10 and 12 inch; 25 one-gallon
jugs of whiskey; 100 gallons of good apple cider; one barrel of
good sorghum; 2 barrels of soap; one extra good negro whip; and 2
tons of 2-year-old tobacco."
Terms, cash. "I need the money."
JOE COOLEY, Owner.
Col. Johnson, Auctioneer.
Limestone Community never had much illiteracy, but some of the pioneers were deprived through hardships and other circumstances from obtaining any schooling and never learned to read or write. Yet they were far from being ignorant and knew how to state their ideas clearly. Good evidence of this is given in the following copy of a will dictated more than a hundred years ago by a pioneer of this community who could neither read nor write. It is doubtful, however, whether many high school students of today could do as well.
WILL OF JOHN BONAR
In the name of God, Amen. I, John Bonar of Ohio County, and State of Virginia, being weak in body but sound in mind and memory, blessed be Almighty God for the same, do by these presents make this my last will and testament to be in full virtue and force after my decease in the following manner, to-wit:
First, I give and bequeath to my daughter, Mary, one bed and bedding and one cow at her marriage or when she sees proper to demand them, and secondly, I give and bequeath to my daughter, Elizabeth, one bed and bedding and one cow at her marriage or when she sees proper to demand them. Thirdly, I give and bequeath to my beloved wife, Rebecca, the use of my plantation that I now live on with all the movable property, improvements, buildings, and orchards that are thereon and belonging thereto to her proper use and benefit while she remains a widow. But at her marriage or after her death the balance of the movable property must be equally divided between my son, Martin, and my two daughters, namely, Mary and Elizabeth, and also my plantation, aforesaid, at my wife's marriage or death, must be sold to the best advantage and after paying my son, David, one dollar, the balance of the price of said plantation to be equally divided between my sons, namely, Martin, John, and Mathews, and further I give and bequeath one dollar to my son, James, and one dollar to my son, William, and one dollar to my daughter, Nancy Porter, to be paid out of the price of the aforesaid plantation and I appoint my beloved wife, Rebecca, to be sole Executrix of this my last will and testament. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 20th day of October, 1824.
JOHN X BONAR. (SEAL)
Published, and delivered by the said John Bonar to be his last will and testament for the purposes therein expressed in presence of us witnesses,
Proven in Court at September Term, 1829, by the oaths of two of the subscribing witnesses, and admitted to record in Will Book No. 3, page 31, Ohio County Records.
Limestone Community has a number of old landmarks that recall reminiscences of the early days when the pioneers were making history, much of which has passed from the memory of those still living and is now beyond recovery.
The tree shown in the accompanying picture is a 253 year old walnut that has been a line tree for more than 160 years. This tree is the oldest landmark in the community. It is hollow and the top has been broken for years. The small tree on the right has grown from one of its roots. The fence between the Jefferson and Simmons' farms goes through the center of this tree. It stands by the roadside on Wayman's Ridge.
In 1882 R. S. Peters burnt the bricks and built the old Peter's Hotel, occupied by Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Crow as their residence in 1928. The clay was secured in the field below the barn for the bricks. C. E. Peters, who was then two years old, stood on a brick form and the brick was then burnt and his footprints can still be seen above the door of this house, thus leaving his footprints upon the bricks of time. The house was used for a convict road camp (number 27) when state route number 6 was being built in 1925-26.
The logs in the cabin standing on the T. J. Campbell farm on Wayman's Ridge at the time this history was prepared, were taken from the old Methodist church that was built about 1825, near an old stone schoolhouse that stood near the gate leading to the Z. L. Simmon's farm. A picture of the cabin is shown on page 10.
The J. B. Hill homestead, known as The Pioneer farm and owned by C. H. Gray in 1928, was an inn during the early days of this community. The present dwelling house was built for a tavern. A square log house called the McClure house stood where Sam Yocum's house now stands. This house was so called in honor of its builder and first owner. It was used for a tavern and the owner kept a drover stand. At that time it was the largest building in Limestone.
The Powell homestead now owned by Mr. Batson was one time a tavern, and it is said that a drover was murdered in it for his money. The drover was stabbed to death while sleeping and many superstitious people believe to this day that this house is haunted because of the murder.
There was an old log church at Wood Hill which was replaced by the present one in 1882.
There is a large elm tree standing in W. E. Francis' barnyard which is more than 150 years old. This farm derives its name of "Elm Farm" from this tree.
The Falls in the run near Parse Coffield's are historic as the scene of a murder. A girl named Morris was killed by Than Harden about 1860. He beat her brains out with a rock and hid her under the falls covering her with brush. Her refusal to marry him was the motive for the murder. Harden was hanged for it. He was the first man ever hanged in Marshall County. He had a blacksmith shop on the farm now owned by Joseph Scott and Son. This was the only murder ever committed in Limestone Community.
The farm owned by John J. Coffield is noted as the place where Lewis Wetzel, who was a relative and named in honor of the famous Indian hunter, accidentally shot and killed himself about 1890.
A number of interesting relics are to be found in the homes in Limestone Community. One of the most interesting is a small trunk owned by J. B. Hill that his grandmother brought from Ireland in 1815. Mr. Hill uses it as a storehouse for valuable papers, and from it came much of the information recorded in this history including the naturalization papers of Benjamin Hill, old land titles, tax receipts, sale bills, and a letter from his brother who was killed during the Civil War. The letter is reproduced under the section on patriotism in this history. Mr. Hill has a dollar gold piece that was in his brother's clothes when they were sent home after he was killed. He also has a newspaper printed in 1862 announcing the winning of the battle of Pittsburgh Landing by General Grant and another that gives an account of the capture of Fort Donelson by Grant.
Mrs. Roy Hill has a baby cradle that her grandfather, Jacob Cox, made and paid $500 for the patent right to sell cradles. This cradle was the only one that he ever made because the people teased him about being a baby cradle inventor. It was made and patented about 1840 and has rocked the babies of five generations or down to his great-great-grandchildren.
A quilt in perfect condition that was made in 1775 by a great- aunt of Lewis Wetzel, the Indian hunter, is owned by Rosa McWhorter, and an Indian hatchet and a handbag that Lewis Wetzel captured from an Indian squaw on Wheeling creek are owned by Mrs. Lee Ray.
W. L. Sellars has a spinning wheel in perfect condition that was in use about 1800, and a hand sickle that his great-great-grandfather brought from England in 1726. He also has a Cooper's Adz, and an adz used to gutter out troughs and make barrel hoops.
H. H. Dowler has a watch that was carried by his grandfather, Edward Dowler, in 1865 while he was a soldier in the Civil War.
Virginia Dowler has a bracelet that was bought in 1875 and a mirror that was bought in 1825.
Stanley Dowler has a one-cent piece, with the inscription on it, "Millions for Defense," dated 1837 and a half-cent piece dated 1861. Mrs. T. J. Campbell has a spinning wheel that was used in 1827. C. C. Crow has a muzzle loading rifle made in 1830 and a shotgun made in 1845.
Mrs. Chas. Standiford has a glass dipper made in 1820 and a revolver that Will Standiford carried in the Civil War. She also has two baby caps that were worn by Sarah and Hannah Keyser in 1844, and a cloth hand-made butterfly that was made in 1826.
Mr. and Mrs. S. M. Koontz have a powder horn that was used in the Civil War, an Eastern-Side Farm Paper dated 1873, and some books that were published in 1860. They also have chairs that were made in 1825 and are still in use.
Mrs. John J. Coffield has a shawl that was made from wool produced in the community, home spun, and woven about 1825 or 1830.
Jackson Shook has several guns that were used by his ancestors in the Civil War.
W. T. Norris has pennies bearing the dates 1845 and 1846, and a 21/2 cent piece dated 1850.
Mildred Hartley has a doll and clothes that were made by her great aunt in 1861.
Chas. L. Sullivan has a poison bullet that was used in the Spanish- American War. He also has a black bear's foot, an ink log house carved out of wood, some wild cat teeth, an American Eagle carved out of wood, four Harper's Weekly papers dated 1861, 1862, 1863, and 1864, and a rug made from the skin of a bear that was captured in the early days of the community. E. W. Dorsey has some very ancient Spanish coins.
Mrs. W. F. Cook has a $20 Confederate bill.
William Francis has a candle mold that was used in 1835 and an old rifle, model 1861, that was used by a Union soldier.
Guy Cain has an old rifle that a Mr. Conner used in the Civil War.
Mrs. A. N. Kelley has a glass pitcher that was made in 1855 and hand-made silver spoons that were made in 1806. She also has a coverlet that was made from home-grown wool, spun, and woven in 1848.
Mrs. Roy D. Myers has some hand-made spoons that were once owned by the Crow sisters who were murdered by the Indians about 1777.
Winfred Shook has a sword that a union soldier used in the Civil War.
Harold Standiford has a revolver that was carried by William Standiford, a Union soldier who was shot and killed in the Civil War.
Evelyn Francis has a dress that was made by her great-grandmother Crow in 1875.
Olive Virginia Hicks has a self sealer glass jar that J. F. Winters brought from the World's Fair at Chicago in 1893.
Mrs. J. L. Hill has a beautiful powder horn that was brought from Ireland in 1775.
Wilbert Jones has a Vulgar arithmetic that was published in 1762, and an old family Bible that has been in the family since 1774. He also has a wooden fork that was made in 1777.
The first subscription school in this community was organized at Limestone in 1830. It was held in a log school house built that year and stood back of where the old schoolhouse now stands. A man named Greene was the first teacher; another teacher was a young man from Ohio named Clemens. Other teachers were Hiram Coffin, William Morgan, and John McColloch. The following regulations are taken from the records:
March 5, 1839, Rules Adopted to Be Observed by the Teacher
ARTICLE I. The school shall be directed by one teacher who shall be chosen by the trustees and who shall at all times be subject to their review.
ARTICLE 2. In this school shall be taught: Orthography, Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic.
ARTICLE 3. It shall be ordered for this school to open at the usual time in the country.
ARTICLE 4. It shall be the duty of the trustees of this society to convene with the teacher to adopt rules for the government of the school and such rules as they may adopt shall be binding.
ARTICLE 5. The trustees shall have the power to convene the members of this society when they think it necessary.
ARTICLE 6. The trustees shall meet every six weeks and examine the progress of the scholars and make report to the members of this society,
ARTICLE 7. The teacher may convene the trustees any time he deems it necessary.
ARTICLE 8, The trustees shall appoint a clerk who shall keep a record of the proceedings of the trustees.
ARTICLE 9. The trustees shall dismiss any teacher or scholar when in their decision by two-thirds of the members they think it necessary for neglect of duty or other good cause.
This Constitution for the school may be amended by the trustees when they think necessary.
ARTICLE 1. The school to commence at 9 o'clock a. m. and close at 4 p. m. until April 1st, then commence at 8 a. m. and close at 4 in the evening.
ARTICLE 2. There is to be good order kept during school hours, intermission, and coming to and from school; the teacher is to prevent the use of improper language, and conduct.
ARTICLE 3. There is to be taught a silent school. By order of the trustees.
WILLIS RUSH BENJAMIN HILL JOHN CRISWELL
The minutes of a meeting held January 28, 1841, show the following subscription school subscribers present: Wm. O. Powell, John Criswell, Emanuel Francis, Isaac Crow, Edward Powell, John Briggs, and Benjamin Hill.
The school houses were located near the cross roads and were few in those days. Pupils traveled three or four miles to school. They were called "Field Schools" from their location. The tuition was two or three dollars a month or about ten cents a day. The teacher boarded around, staying the longest with the family that had the most scholars in the school.
The houses were built of logs and chinked with mud between. Mud was used for plastering both inside and out. Flagstones were used for jams. A huge fireplace took the place of a stove. A cat and clay chimney also was built for this great fireplace. Seats were made from a split log with legs driven in. Chestnut, poplar, white walnut, or basswood was usually used in making seats. There was a writing desk on each side of the room with leather hinges so it could be hung up on the side of the room.
Logs that were used for firewood were drawn in by hickory bark. One morning a farmer was working near the old subscription school at Limestone (one of the oldest in the county). The teacher asked him to haul in a log for firewood. The log was dragged up to the fireplace by the horse. It is said that the horse had plenty of room to turn around after being unhitched from the log in the house.
The roofs were of clapboards laid on pole rafters. Also a pole was laid on the clapboards to hold them down. There was only one window in these log school houses and greased paper was used instead of glass. The doors were hung on wooden hinges. The floor consisted of split logs, laid the split side up. These were known as puncheon floors.
The pens used in those days were made of goose-quills. Indigo or poke-berry ink was used. Soap stones took the place of chalk. The blackboards were simply boards painted black. Copybooks were made of foolscap paper. The text-books used were: United States Spelling book, McGuffey's readers, and Ray's arithmetic. In those days it was the custom for the teacher to treat the pupils, and if he did not treat, the big boys, as they were commonly called, "ducked the teacher," or punished him in some other way.
The length of term was from three to four months, and wages, all told, from $20 to $35 per month. The curriculum consisted mainly of the three R's or "reading, writing, and arithmetic, taught to the tune of a hickory stick."
The most common games were ball and needle's eye. The boys would set traps for skunk, rabbit, raccoon, and mink on their way to school. In this way they earned their spending money, as they called it.
The lunch at school consisted mainly of corn-dodgers and meat. When it was cloudy the children hurried home because of the fear of wild beasts.
Punishments for disobeying in those schools were severe. We are told of a teacher that gave a twelve-year old boy seventy-five strokes with a ferrule, three-eights of an inch thick, one and a half inches wide, and twenty-two inches long. Twenty-five strokes were given with all his might, and the other fifty were not love taps.
It is said one teacher had a large boy who was very disobedient and he put him under the puncheon floor for an hour. That was to serve the purpose of a dungeon.
There were no school bells in those days like we now have, but the government was by signals or raps with a pointer.
The following is a copy of a song they used to sing in the old time schools of Washington District, as well as throughout the pioneer schools of the county.
It is not in the noisy street, that pleasure's often
It is not where the idle meet, that purest joys are found,
But where the faithful teacher stands,
With firm but gentle rules. Oh, that's the happiest place for me,
The pleasant, pleasant school.
We care not for the burning sun, we care not for the
We shrink not for the drifting snow, while life and health ,are ours,
But when the merry school-bell throws its welcome on the air,
In spite of sun or rain or snow, you'll always find us there.
They come from alley, lane and street, they come, they're coming
They come, they come with nimble feet, from valley and from hill.
They come from many a distant road, a mile or more they come;
They come from many a bright abode, from many a happy home.
The stamp that's borne on manhood's brow, is traced in early
The good or ill we're doing now, in future life appears.
And as our youthful hours we spend, in study, toil, or play,
We trust that they their aid will lend, to cheer us on our way.
Oh, the school-room that's the place for me,
You'll never find go where you will, a happier set than we.
About 1865 the log schools began to give away to plank school houses which were erected usually at the cross roads as that was the handiest meeting place for all the pupils.
The district was then divided into subdistricts for school purposes. A board of education was elected by the voters of the district and the board appointed three trustees for each subdistrict who had the hiring of the teachers and general supervision over the school.
The office of county superintendent was created about 1865 and one of its duties was to certificate teachers and examine them. In 1903 the state superintendent took over the certification of teachers. At that time a high school education and normal training weren't necessary, as at present.
The length of term about 1870 was three or four months. It has been lengthened gradually until in 1928 the minimum was eight months.
The salary in 1870 was about $15 or $20 per month, as compared to about $100 per month in 1928.
The books used from 1878 to 1908 were McGuffey's readers, Ray's arithmetics, McGuffey's spellers, Brook's mental arithmetics, and Mitchell's geographies.
About 1909 another room was added to the Wayman's Ridge school. It was used for school purposes three or four years and when the rural population declined only one room was used. The two room schools were then thought to be the last thing for rural schools. About 1914 when the automobile began to socialize rural life, and macadam roads began to develop, the idea of a larger community school grew slowly until 1923 when the Fairview one-room school house accidentally burned. The good roads had then come and the auto bus was here to stay. It was then necessary to build a new school of some kind and the citizens requested a new consolidated school to be paid for by direct taxation. It was finished and school held in it on February 2, 1925, for the first time.
The curriculum is now changed every few years and each day we enter into a new school age.
The Washington District Consolidated grade and high school in 1928 had 110 pupils, four teachers, two bus drivers, and a janitor. The building has four class rooms, an auditorium, an office, two gymnasiums, inside sanitary toilets, a furnace, special departments for agriculture, home economics, biology, and manual training, and a library of more than 600 volumes. It takes the place of five one-room schools, that were located in the neighborhoods of Wayman's Ridge, Alien, Limestone, Wood Hill, and Fairview.
The new school building also serves the community as a center for social, recreational, and business meetings. A district fair is held at the school each fall, and monthly community and Four-H meetings are held in the school building.
This community has always been a very religious community and is to the present day. The log church had its place in the pioneer days the same as the home and the school; often the log school house served for both a schoolhouse and church.
The Buchanan Hill Church was prominent in the pioneer days of this community. It derived its name from its first minister whose name was Buchanan. At Wood Hill, Fairview, and Wayman's Ridge the log church was prominent also.
One of the oldest churches standing in this community today is the Limestone Presbyterian Church. On May 24, 1870, about fifteen persons who had adopted the Presbyterian faith met and organized this congregation under the supervision and direction of Rev. D. H. Lafferty. Wm. C. Smith succeeded him, and he was followed by Rev. J. F. Curtis, Rev. J. A. Brown, and many others. John K. Francis, Emanuel Francis, Daniel Wilson, James Standiford, and John Allen were among the first elders.
The church started with a membership of thirty-two and a good Sunday School of about fifty scholars. Little sacks were fastened on the ends of long sticks and the stewards took the collection by passing these, so that if a person was asleep they could poke him with the stick to awaken him. Services lasted all day; the people coming in large wagons and bringing lunch with them.
This church is still in good condition and now has a piano, electric lights, and other modern equipment. It has an active membership, a good Sunday school, a budget system, a Ladies' Aid Society more than thirty years old, and a fine cemetery.
The churches in Limestone Community include three Methodist and one Presbyterian. The Buchanan Hill Church was of the United Presbyterian faith. It was torn down in 191 7 and moved to Cedar Avenue in Moundsville where it was rebuilt into the Church of Christ.
The Fairview Methodist Church was built in 1887 and the Wayman's Ridge Methodist Church in 1889.
The Limestone, Wayman's Ridge, Fairview, and Wood Hill churches all have active Ladies' Aid societies. The oldest of these is that of the Limestone church.
Limestone Ladies' Aid Society
The Limestone Ladies' Aid Society was organized in 1900. Some of the early members were: Mrs. L. H. McCuskey, Mrs, J. H. Henceroth, Mrs. G. A. Koontz, Mrs. C. E. Standiford, Mrs. J. W. Crow, Mrs. Levi Coffield, Miss Lottie Riggle, and Mrs. John Francis. All of these members are still living but most of them have moved from the community. The Society, however, still lives on and works nobly to do the work it has to do.
The first records of the society have been destroyed but the secretary's book from 1908 shows that more than fifteen hundred dollars has been raised by the members. This money was spent for the church in whatever way it was needed.
In the summer of 1926 the Society gave a play and the proceeds made a good payment on the Delco plant for the church. At the beginning of 1927 the Society had a roll of twenty-two members and met every two wrecks. Three all day quiltings were held during the winter that were much enjoyed, besides one other all-day meeting, which was spent in working for the Christmas sale.
If there is anything needed to be done in the church the Ladies' Aid is always called on and surely the past has proved that this Society has been a great help to the church.
|Mrs. E. S. Dowler||Mrs. S. W. Riggs||Mrs. W. O. Aston|
|Miss Lottie Riggle||Mrs. Rudolph Lilley||Mrs. C. E. Standiford|
|Mrs. J. D. Coffield||Mrs. Homer Coffield||Mrs. J. Robert Crow|
|Mrs. J. R. Coffield||Mrs, Encil Robinson||Miss Beulah Francis|
|Mrs. J. S. Cain||Mrs. W. E. Francis||Mrs. H. E. Shook|
|Mrs. Lonnie Francis||Mrs. A. G. McNinch||Mrs. Harry Scott|
|Mrs. J. W. Crow||Mrs. L. G. McWhorter||Mrs. Parse Coffield|
|Mrs. Arthur Crow||Mrs. S. M. Koontz||Mrs. Roy Crow|
|Mrs. M. E. Lilley|
The automobile, good roads, telephone, radio, and other socializing influences have been developing rural life in Limestone Community until there is a tendency for the churches to keep pace with the schools and unite in a community church. As to what the future development may be in this direction, we can only predict, but there is evidence that points to a united effort in religious work within another decade.
The Marshall County infirmary is located in Limestone Community, as the conditions make it an ideal location for the institution. The farm operated in connection with the home makes it practically self- supporting, any deficiency being supplied by taxes. In 1928 there were about thirty inmates in the home, and the superintendent was W. E. Clayton. The superintendent is appointed each year by the county court.
The Grandview Sanitarium, the only one in Marshall County, was located in Limestone Community because of the healthful conditions prevailing. It is helping to eradicate tuberculosis in West Virginia, and at one time the mothers of twenty-three children were receiving treatment. The average number of patients is about twenty- five to thirty. Regular church services are held each Sunday, and as the sanitarium is located near the county infirmary the inmates of the infirmary attend church services at the sanitarium.
The institution was controlled by the Marshall County health unit and supported by gifts but the control was taken over by the county court and it is now supported by taxation.
Valley Star Council No. 60, Jr. O. U. A. M.
The Valley Star Council No. 60, Jr. O. U. A. M. was chartered and constituted a subordinate council of the State Council of Jr. O. U. A. M. of the State of West Virginia, on March 2, 1892, by A. A. Eskey, State Councillor, and John D. Hall, State Councillor, Secretary, with the following men as charter members: W. Griffith, Robert Downing, Chas. Crow, John Crow, Frank Ray, C. M. Keyser, W. Kemple, G. B. Pelley, F. H. Jones, C. P. Jones, C. R. Snedeker, E. Francis, C. B. Cunningham, L. B. Foster, J. N. Jefferson, W. A. Bush, J. H. Henceroth, W. H. Johnson, E. M. Campbell, G. W. Blake, Wilbert Jones, E. Wetzel, E. D. Standiford, W. S. Gates, and J. P. Conner.
The council has always been able to meet its obligation to its members in sick benefits and death awards, and at the close of 1927 was worth in real estate and fixtures $3,534.80.
The Jr. O. U. A. M. has influenced the highest type of citizenship in this community. It has created a more brotherly feeling among the people. The people of the organization have tried to create the feeling that we all should work together for the benefit of the entire community and not for an individual. It has made a better community in every way. It has helped the home, church, and the school, the three important institutions of any community.
Officers for 1928 The officers elected for 1928 were as follows: Homer Coffield, Councillor A. R. Hicks, Trustee Encil Robinson, Vice Councillor M. E. Lilley, W. A. R. Hicks, A. R. S. Russell Jefferson, I. S. S. J. T. McCreary, R. S. Wm. D. Crow, 0. S. S. C. B. Allman, F. S. J. E. Jefferson, Con. J. T. McCreary, Treasurer Wm. Griffith, Chap. Membership in 1928 T. F. D. Jones M. DeWitt Logsdon A. C. West C. A. Livingston J. Robert Crow Walter E. Wilson Charley Lowe Parse Coffield Edward Yoss James R. Leach E. W. Dorsey Samuel Yocum G. W. Livingston E. S. Dowler M. E. Lilley J. C. McWhorter W. E. Francis W. L. Newman H. T. McWhorter Wm. Flannagan Russell Jefferson G. T. Powell Richard Francis Lester Coffield A. D. Powell Robert Frazier A. G. McNinch Stidger Polan J. M. Grandstaff S. E. Kittle Denton Riggs Wm. Griffith Albert Coffield Avery Riggs F. E. Heath C. B. Allman John R. Coffield A. R. Hicks James B. Welch Encil Robinson Wylie Heath Floyd Coffield U. S. Blair Wilbert Jones Charles Reed J. S. Burley E. S. Jones Wm. Dean Crow H. A. Brown, Jr. H. S. Jones Walter L. McCracken Milton Carmichael J. E. Jefferson Blaine Allen Frank Carmichael Chauncey Jones Wm. Robinson Nelson Crow C. R. Snediker J. A. McCracken J. I. Campbell Archie L. Snediker Lloyd Dorsey John Wesley Crow H. M. Standiford G. R. Winters G. C. Caldwell Russell Shook J. Clifford Francis W. W. Coffield Harry Scott Guy V. Cain Webster Coffield James Welch, Sr. Ronald Davidson Homer Coffield Elijah Martin Orval Briggs Carl Crow J. E. McCombs Lloyd Polen J. Wesley Crow, Sr. J. T. McCreary Fearn Coffield Ira W. Livingston Eugene McWhorter Martin Coffield Lindsay Logsdon L. G. McWhorter E. H. McCracken John Willis Livingston J. Sherman Welch Bernard Simmons Ralph Livingston J. M. Weekly John Cunningham Deceased Members Lewis Wetzel, a direct descendant of the great Indian hunter, was the first deceased member of this order. Other deceased members prior to 1928 were: Att'y. S. B. Blair H. M. Miles W. S. Gates J. H. Henceroth C. M. Keyser N. T. Bruce F. B. Trentor J. N. Daugherty William Bruce Frank Jones Encil Talbert Willard Wallace W. P. Jones Lawrence Talbert E. K. Blair Farmers' Club Limestone Community has a large number of members of the county and state farm bureau organization. G. C. Musgrove, the first county agent of Marshall County, organized the farmers of this community into a farmers' club in 1914, or early in 1915. The club has continued its regular community meetings ever since and its picnic is now an annual affair. This community club at Fairview is the oldest organization of farmers in Marshall County. The women did not have a separate club up to 1928, but they certainly have done their bit to help their husbands keep the good work moving. It is expected that the women will organize a separate club soon. Four-H Clubs The oldest Four-H club in Marshall County was organized at Fairview in this community about 191 7. County Agent Musgrove began to talk about the work and County Agent B. P. Kocher was responsible for organizing it. This was the most active club in the county for a long time, and its members accomplished something worthwhile, as proved by the Four-H's its members won at the County Camp and Jackson's Mill. This club work was the life of the entire community. In the fall of 1926 the Fairview club and the Limestone club united into one club under the name of "Ideal Workers." Wayman's Ridge has a Four-H club that is only two years old, but every member has the record of having finished his project. This club is called "The Sunshine Club." County Agent L. L. Lough is responsible for this club. T. E. N. Steele, former county agent, also deserves a lot of credit for his Four-H work while in charge of the work. Four-H club work has encouraged better stock and farming methods in the community. GOVERNMENT The earliest form of government in Limestone Community was the tribal system of the Indians. When the white men came they were under the jurisdiction of Patrick Henry, governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia. After 1783 the Governor of Virginia handed down the ruling made by the House of Burgesses, which provided for Shires or Sheriffs to enforce the laws. The county of Marshall was formed in 1835 from Ohio County and this brought the government closer to the people. The county was divided into districts and officers elected in each district to enforce the laws made by the legislature. The district officers had power to make some laws especially relating to schools. The Justice of the Peace or Squire was then an important officer in each district. Heavy fines were imposed for trivial offenses and cruel and brutal punishments were often inflicted. In the days of the whipping post, law-breakers from this community were taken to Wheeling prior to 1835 to be whipped, but after Marshall County was formed the offenders were taken to Moundsville for punishment. Wheeling was the first center of government for the community, and Moundsville became the center after Marshall County was formed and still remains the place from which the law is administered. Voting in the community was public until 1893 when the secret ballot was adopted, but even then for a time the voter had to write his name on the back of his ballot. Taxes A tax receipt dated 1841 shows that the taxes on 400 acres of land in this community were $4.50, on four horses, 50 cents, and other personal property, $2.33, making a total of $7.33 taxes, paid to Zadoc Masters, Sheriff of Marshall County. Another tax receipt dated 1864, shows the tax on 536 1/2 acres of land, $2,193 worth of personal property, and $1,000 in money was $209.41, and taxes were the highest then ever noted. A place was provided on the tax receipt for listing all slaves more than 12 years of age as taxable property, A two-cent Internal Revenue War stamp was attached on the back of each receipt. In 1873 the same property was taxed at $102.96. In 1874 the taxes on the same property were $95.05. NOTED SONS AND DAUGHTERS Lewis Wetzel, the Indian scout of the Revolutionary period, was a son of this community. Among his descendants who were living in Limestone Community in 1928 were the McWhorters, Rays, Shooks, and Weeklys. Mr. Wetzel died of a fever at the age of 44 years and was buried in Mississippi. Betty Zane, the pioneer heroine of Fort Henry in 1782, was a frequent visitor at the farm now owned by S. W. Reed. The Norris' and Reed's were her descendants. J. W. Heath's family are direct descendants of Colonel David Shepherd. The family of Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Jefferson are direct descendants of the Crow sisters who were murdered by the Indians on Wheeling Creek about 1777. The Jeffersons are said to be descendants of President Thomas Jefferson. Jonathan P. Dolliver, an ex-senator of Iowa, was the son of a minister that was on a circuit in Limestone Community when Jonathan was a small boy. Civil Officials J. P. Wayman served as Sheriff of Marshall County from 1873-1877. Encil Cunningham has served as a sheriff in the state of Colorado. S. M. Cunningham has served as deputy sheriff of Marshall County for a number of years. J. D. Parriott has become a very prominent attorney in Denver, Colorado. He served as Prosecuting Attorney of Marshall County two terms, from 1913-1921. W. C. Riggs served as Deputy Sheriff of Marshall County. L. L. Newman served as State Senator from 1878 to 1882. Stanley Daugherty was a police in Moundsville in 1928. Mrs. E. S. Dowler was a committee woman from Washington District in 1928. Parse Coffield was a committeeman of Webster District in 1928, and served four years as road supervisor of Webster District roads. Professional Workers Dr. D. L. Lowery was one of the best veterinarians ever in the United States, He was known in every state of the union and in some parts of Canada. He was the maker of Lowery's Liniment, Preventative, and Lowery's Powders. He died in 1911 . His medicine is still being sold by J. H. Beam Drug Company, Moundsville, West Virginia. Chas. L. Sullivan is the only taxidermist in Marshall County and a member of the Board of Education of Washington District. Rev. David Hammond was a prominent minister. Rev. John Francis is a prominent minister at Altoona, Pennsylvania. Beatrice Riggs is a dietician in Clinton, New Jersey. Wilbert Jones is a prominent surveyor and has served as county surveyor. W. L. Harden is a prominent veterinarian. Washington Hill is a jeweler in Pittsburgh, Pa. William Wilson was a prominent violin maker. Everett Cook is president of the Board of Education in Ohio County and a prominent farmer. W. T. Beam is a well known druggist in Moundsville. Mrs. Mattie Jefferson-Crow holds a very responsible position with the City and County Bank in Moundsville. Dr. Lawrence Riggs is a prominent dentist in Florida. Miss Jessie Cunningham was the county health nurse of Marshall County in 1928. Miss Pearl Dorsey is a well known rural life leader and has worked with the Extension Division of the West Virginia College of Agriculture in scoring rural communities throughout the state. Cecil Riggs is a very prominent chemistry teacher in Waynesburg College, Pennsylvania. Clarence Lowe is secretary to the President of West Liberty State Normal School. Robert Gibson is a manual training teacher in a high school in the state of Ohio. Victor Hill was principal of a school in Boone County in 1925- 1927. Theodore Jones is principal of a school in Ohio County. Miss Loretta Hill is a successful teacher in Boone County. Clyde Parsons was the teacher of the Greenwood School in Liberty District, Marshall County in 1927-28. Mary Ellen Dorsey is a school teacher in Moundsville. W. T. W. H. Griffith was a prominent school teacher of this community. Carl D. Crow was a prominent football star at West Virginia University in 1926-27, and in 1928 held a responsible position with the Weirton dairy. S. A. Moore is a teacher of the schools of Washington District, Marshall County. T. L. Jefferson is a school teacher in Webster District, Marshall County. Carl S. Richmond became an outstanding school teacher of this county, and later a successful business man in Colorado. Among others who have distinguished themselves as teachers are included, Mr. and Mrs. Edward Denis, Roy D. Myers, Mrs. Thomas Yoho, Alene Coffield, Margaret Foster, Cora Campbell, Mrs. Harry Logsdon, Mrs. Lyle Byrnes, Mrs. Eleanor McNinch, and Mrs. W. B. Pack, Jr., Mrs. Spencer Dunlap, Mrs. George Hall, Mrs. J. Robert Crow, Mrs. Wm. Griffith, Mr. and Mrs. M. D. Logsdon, Mrs. Blanche Pierce, and Mrs. Howard Gibson. Mrs. Laura Zink St. Clair was a former school teacher in a sod schoolhouse in the western part of the United States. Anton T. G. Fokker, famous airplane designer, moved into J. D. Parriott's house in 1928. Business Men Allen T. Cunningham is the manager of the Eastern Ohio Feed and Supply Company. Carl Shook and William Rogerson are owners and proprietors of a garage at Moundsville. C. E. Peters is owner and proprietor of a milk depot at Moundsville. J. R. Leach is the manager of a large lumber camp down in old Virginia. C. B. Crow is a prominent business man of Moundsville. G. A. Koontz is a well known business man of Moundsville. John Ferrell is a prominent real estate agent at Elm Grove in Ohio County. J. Robert Crow is the manager of the Moundsville bottling works. Clyde S. Kelley was manager of Jebbia Metz wholesale store at the time of his death. R. S. Peters was one of the best known auctioneers in the state. Wilbert Gibson is a large building contractor in Warren, Ohio. W. B. Pack is a prominent plumber in Moundsville. Robert Barr is a well known brick contractor. Kenneth Crow holds a responsible position with a battery company in Wheeling. Arthur Reed is a well known landscape gardener and nurseryman at McKeefrey, West Virginia. J. D. Coffield was road supervisor of Washington District from 1924 to 1928 and was still serving when this history was printed. J. B. Cotts is owner and proprietor of Fairview Tourist Camp and filling station. The tourist camp was established in 1927. Charles Riggs was deputy assessor of Marshall County in 1928. Wylie Riggs is a well known representative of the Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company. Robert and Victor Jones are prominent surveyors in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Bernard Simmons is a rural mail carrier on route 3, Moundsville. John Hill was mail censor at the West Virginia Penitentiary and also an officer and guard there for a number of years. John Jefferson is a guard at the same institution. J. T. McCreary has been secretary of the Farmers' Mutual Telephone Company, Marshall County, for ten years. T. D. Richmond is a real estate agent who has become well known throughout the county. Others who have distinguished themselves in business include: W. L. Sellars, coal dealer; W. G. Allen, barber; J. A. McCracken and E. J. Koontz, electricians; Sam Dorsey, livestock buyer; C. P. Jones, carpenter and contractor; John Scott, oil man; Joe Riggle, pump machinist; and W. E. Mason, C. C. Bardall and W. W. Yoho, general business operations. Samuel Yocum served eight years as a road supervisor of Washington District, and from 1925 to 1928 was employed by the state as a road official. J. Herbert Rigg is a well-known business man of Moundsville. He is a traveling salesman and is also connected with D. C. Lutes undertaking establishment. Farmers Hanson Riggs served as a member of the board of education of Washington District, Marshall County, for more than thirty years, and was still a member at the time of his death in September, 1926. Mr. Riggs was always a forward and progressive citizen in all things for the betterment of the community. It was through his influence that the rural delivery was established in his community—the first in the county, and the same is true for the telephone. He was very influential in the building of the Washington District Consolidated School, at Limestone in 1925. Mr. Riggs was a prosperous and highly respected farmer and loved by all who knew him. On December 24, 1924, Mr. and Mrs. Riggs celebrated their Golden Wedding Anniversary. At his funeral on September 15, 1926, a person said, "It is worth while to live if you can have the nice things said about you that can truthfully be said of Mr. Riggs." R. H. Gibson is the owner of a large farm near Ravenna, Ohio. Donald Leach is a progressive farmer in Pennsylvania. James Hill was the owner of a large ranch in Iowa. J. B. Hill is a retired farmer. J. N. Dowler is a well known retired farmer of Moundsville. D. W. Coffield is a prominent farmer and was editor of the Ohio County Farm Bureau Review in 1928, and a member of the Board of Education in Ohio County. Lloyd Dorsey and Landon Hill were two of the winners in the State Four-H Dairy Judging Contest at the West Virginia State Fair at Wheeling in September, 1926 thereby getting a free trip to Detroit, Michigan, to the National Dairy Show. Lloyd stood fourth among sixty-three contestants in the national judging contest. Howard Gibson was the manager of a large fruit farm in Ohio. W. G. Riggs was president of the West Virginia Jersey Cattle Club in 1928. Ralph Riggs was president of the Marshall County Jersey Cattle Club in 1928. J. T. McCreary and Mr. J. F. Jefferson were the oldest men living in Limestone Community in 1928. They were born in 1847 and were 80 years old. Mr. Jefferson is a well known auctioneer and retired farmer. Steve Kissel has made a success of truck farming. C. H. Gray and Elbert Francis are successful dairymen. Kaird Parsons, S. M. Koontz, J. L. Hill, and Harry Scott have achieved distinction as poultryrnen. PATRIOTISM There have been soldiers from this community in every war in which this great county of ours has engaged since the French and Indian War. In the sufferings at Valley Forge in 1 776-77, the victory at Trenton, the battle of Saratoga in 1777, and the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781 , pioneers of this community took an active part. During the war of 1812 and the Mexican war of 1846-48, the boys responded equally as well and sacrificed their lives and fortunes for the strong government that was protecting their homes and loved ones. During the Civil War, about thirty boys from this community responded to President Lincoln's call for volunteers in '61, and this community was represented by the boys in blue in the battles of Bull Run, Gettysburg, Antietam, Cedar Creek, Chancellorsville, the March through Georgia, Pittsburgh Landing, and Fort Donelson. Many of these men made the supreme sacrifice that this progressive community should not perish from the earth. The following is a copy of a letter written by a young man of this community which shows the real patriotism of its sons. This man was killed in a battle shortly after this letter was written to his parents: Fort Donelson, Dec. 20, 1862. Dear Parents: I received yours, Dear Mother, of the 6th the day before yesterday and, oh I how glad I was to hear that you were all well and to get the lock of your hair, dear inother. If I am permitted to see my home again I will have it with me. My health is good. I have got well of the rheumatism. It is hard for me to be so far from all my friends and it is hard for you to have me so far away, but then I hope It is all for the best. I hope it will not be long before I aim allowed to return to my dear friends at home and I hope that God will pre- serve them all In health until that happy time. I was sorry to hear that so many of the boys who went from there were sick. The health of our company is good. I suppose that S. Francis and Miss D. will start an academy at Pleasant Valley when they get married. I think that around home must be getting hard run for young men. I hope that I will get home to eat some of the fruit you have put up. We do not get a great deal of fruit here; that is, green fruit, we get plenty of dried. I have had two letters from Cousin Emma since I came here, I would like to get some flowers from home but maybe it is best not to send them. There are so many letters lost. I cannot get my likeness taken here now, but there is some talk of a man coming to take likenesses and if he comes or I get where I can have it taken, will have it done but you would hardly know me. I have not shaved since we left Monmouth and dressed then as I am now. It would be as much as you could do to trace a resemblance between the Ben that left you about a year ago and Ben of today. I am sorry that I did not know that Doc. Dixier lived near Hopkinsville, when I was there. If I ever get back in that part will try and find out whether he is still living. It is as pretty a country around Hopkinsville as I ever saw. I never saw as many pretty girls in one place in my life before and the best part of it is they all are for the Union. They took us into their houses and gave us the best of everything. I think that if I ever live to see peace declared, I will come back there and get one of them for a wife and live there, too. I expect that we will stay here all winter, but it is hard to tell. We have little log houses built. They are warm but we have no cold weather here yet. We have had the nicest weather for this time of the year. I do wish that it would rain to raise the river so that boats could come up the old Mississippi, It would make things more lively. Tell Joe to write to me. I have not had a letter from him since I left Monmouth a few days ago. I got a letter from Matilda a few days ago. She said she had written to Wash the same day that she wrote to me. I want to write to him next week. Well, I must close. Write soon and tell all the boys to write, My love to all, B. F. H. The Zanes, Wetzels, and Morrises were the Revolutionary soldiers that represented this community in the dark days of the War for Independence from 1775 to 1783. During the war of 1898, boys from this community were found on the battlefield of the Philippine Islands. During the Great World War of 1917-1918, this community sent her sons to the battles of the Marne, Argonne Forest, Meuse- Argonne and many other important battles and battle fronts of Europe. "No Man's Land" was stained with blood of the sons of this community. Arthur Sibert lies sleeping in the Fairview cemetery, Robert William Robinson in the Limestone cemetery, and Everett Hill in the cemetery at Wayman's Ridge, all having made the supreme sacrifice for the cause of liberty. Everett Hill died in April, 1917, while serving in Alaska. His body was brought several hundred miles on dog sledges, and arrived at his home about two or three weeks after his death. J. Robert Crow and James E. Magers were wounded. These boys like many others made the highest sacrifice that was possible that this community should have a new birth of freedom and that this great democracy of ours should have a chance to complete its great unfinished task. About forty of the sons from this community represented it on the battlefields of France in 1917-18, and the people at home did their part to help them keep the Hun on the run. The people of this community have always proved themselves patriotic, because of their interest in the development of the homes, schools, churches, state and nation. What better test of patriotism can we administer than that? The citizens of this community have always been a very pious, industrious, God-fearing, liberty-loving, friendly, and patriotic people. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION Roads Probably the first road of any kind in Limestone Community was an Indian trail laid out by Cornstalk that followed down the point where Roy Crow now lives (1928). The first trail made by white men in this community was the one blazed by Jonathan Zane in 1796 from Wheeling to Limestone, as was mentioned at the beginning of this history. In 1811 the county court of Ohio County ordered a road to be opened from Parr's Point to the Pennsylvania line and it was extended to Waynesburg in that year, and became known as the Waynesburg Pike, a famous drove road during the middle of the nineteenth century. Drove stands along this road were numerous. These consisted of the wayside tavern of the day with stock yards and pasture to accommodate large droves of cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses. Most of the surplus corn along this road was fed to stock in the fall, especially hogs. Stock was driven from various states to Baltimore over this road; even large droves of mules were often seen. Emigrant wagons drawn by oxen and loaded with household belongings traveled both eastward and westward. George Washington traveled over this road, which was then a trail, on a trip to Wheeling in 1 770. He stayed all night at Lone Oak, where the W. A. Brown home now stands and continued the journey the next day. Zachary Taylor, too, passed along this road in 1849 in a stagecoach on his way to Washington, D. C., to be inaugurated as President of the United States. This main road connects Wheeling, Moundsville, Cameron, Fairmont, Clarksburg, Morgantown, Elkins, Waynesburg, and other county seats of West Virginia and Pennsylvania, and has been designated as State Route No. 6. It was formerly called the Waynesburg turnpike because there were toll-gates on it. The toll-gate in Limestone Community was where H. T. Crow now lives in the Wood Hill neighborhood. This road connected Waynesburg and Moundsville. It was first macadamized about 1890. It was resurfaced every few years until 1925 when the state took the road over and finished it, designated it State Route 6. The by-roads then began to be macadamized by the county. The length of State Route No. 6 through this community is about ten miles. Of the by-roads a total of about fifteen miles has been hard surfaced. The Wayman's Ridge and the Oak Dale roads have been macadamized by the county court. Telephones The farmers' telephone line was the first to accommodate the masses of the people of this community. The first line was built 1905. Several companies were organized and built about the same time. I. C. Brown and H. L. Jones did the installing of the boxes and switchboards. The Bell telephone line was built through this community about the same time as the farmers' line. The first electric and telephone lines on the same poles were strung from Moundsville to the home of E. W. Dorsey in 1928. Rural Mail Delivery The first R. F. D. mail route in the county was established from Moundsville and this community was served by it. That was about 1904. E. W. Bonar was one of the first and best carriers on this route. Radios In 1925 radios began to appear in a number of homes in Limestone Community, and they have become a part of the family life in a majority of the homes of the community. They have helped to make rural life more enjoyable and pleasurable. INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS Farming Agriculture has always been the chief occupation of Limestone Community, but it has developed along different lines and led up to various enterprises and industries. Sheep raising was the first great farming enterprise of Limestone Community. This was probably due, in part at least, to the hilly land, suitable climate, pure water, and good shepherds, all of which tended to make sheep raising profitable. Limestone Community is in one of the best fine wool regions of the world. This has been proved because wool from this Northern Panhandle of West Virginia won first prize twice at the world's fair for the best fine wool. The first purebred sheep in Limestone Community came in about 1870 when Jacob T. Cox purchased a large flock of registered sheep from a Pennsylvania farmer. Purebred sheep have been kept in this community since that time. Hog raising developed rapidly about 1880 and droves of hogs containing several hundred head were driven from Limestone Community to Pittsburgh and other markets. Registered hogs appeared in the community in 1889, as shown by a registration certificate dated February 18, 1889. Corn was easily raised in the community and fed profitably to the hogs so that they were rightfully called the "mortgage lifters" of this community. The early farmers of Limestone Community had to cut all their grain with a cycle for the first 25 years. Later the grain cradle came into use and held the stage for the next twenty-five years. It was followed by the "dropper" which cut the grain and left it in place to be bound into sheaves by hand. In 1883 a new era in raising small grain came into Washington District when the first binder appeared. This binder was bought by V. A. Cockayne. The first grain cut with it was wheat on June 28, 1883. The binder was still being used in 1928, after forty-five years of service, but was still in good condition. It is practically all wood. The wooden frame, rollers, reels, etc., are made of ash. The floor is of pine. The main drive wheel as well as grain wheel are all wood. In fact it is an all wood binder, but it has served its purpose well. At first the threshing was done by hand with a flail. Then came the old horse-power thresher which was considered quite a boon. Later, however, it was replaced by the steam thresher. Grain raising developed rapidly until dairying in 1926 began to crowd it out. About 1890 fruit growing began to develop in Limestone Community and the crop was hauled to Wheeling and marketed. The climatic and soil conditions did not seem favorable to fruit raising, however, and the slow development of apple trees discouraged fruit growing somewhat, with the result farmers began to raise poultry extensively because there was always a demand for poultry and poultry products. Purebred White Leghorn and Barred Plymouth Rock chickens have always had a strong standing in Limestone Community. The West Virginia type of poultry house has been in this community since 1914. Homer Parriott, Harry Scott, Kaird Parsons, S. M. Koontz, Sally Sellars, and John Hill have been recognized as the leading poultry raisers in Marshall County, since 1923, when they all began to raise purebread chickens. In 1914 when the automobile and good roads began to bring the country and city closer together, the farmers began to change the community to a dairy center. In 1914 Charles Riggs purchased the first purebred Jersey cow in Limestone Community from a Mr. Chambers of West Alexander, Pennsylvania. Since that time Limestone has become a Jersey community and dairying has advanced by leaps and bounds. In 1920 a Marshall County Jersey Cattle Club was organized by the Jersey breeders of Limestone Community which has been the most active organization of its kind in West Virginia. The club shipped two bulls on November 6, 1926, to the American Jersey Cattle Club, both of which had been winners at the West Virginia State Fair at Wheeling, and at the Washington, Pennsylvania, fair. In 1927 W. G. Riggs of Limestone Community had the highest testing herd of ten purebred Jersey cows in West Virginia making an average of 350.4 pounds of butterfat for each cow. Mr. Riggs owns Lodestar's Golden Idol, the state champion Jersey cow. She finished a register of merit test January 24, 1925, in class AA, with 11,017 pounds of milk and 455 pounds of fat in 365 days, making her the champion three-year old cow in her class for West Virginia. She reentered the test again January 15, 1927, and finished her test November 16, 1927, making 12,836 pounds of milk and 510 pounds of fat in 305 days. She milked as much as 56.6 pounds of milk on each of three separate days of the testing period. She made this record on pasture during the season and in stanchions in winter months, besides running with a herd of 12 to 18 other cattle. After the completion of State Route 6 in 1925, the raising of small fruits and vegetables gained in importance in this community, and roadside markets sprang up. Now the raising of strawberries, raspberries, peaches, potatoes, tomatoes, etc., has developed into an important industry which in time to come may rival the dairy industry, particularly so, as the population increases, the farms gradually grow smaller, land increases in price, and farm labor becomes more plentiful. Intensive farming is gradually taking the place of extensive farming in this community. Lumber Industry The pioneers chopped some of the finest timber in the world down, rolled it into heaps, and burned it to get it out of the way when they settled Limestone Community. In 1928 there were two sawmills in operation in the community, and walnut and chestnut logs were being cut and sent to France in the log to be used for tannin and making mahogany. The stump and roots were used as they were more valuable than any other part of the tree for making tannin and mahogany. The stump and roots which were ordinarily left in waste form paid for the marketing. This was real conservation of forests. Many farmers began in 1927 to plant walnuts and other trees for the future forests of Limestone Community. This was the first step toward forest farming. Other Occupations People of various occupations live in this community who have their work in the cities of Moundsville, Glendale, Benwood, McMechen, and Wheeling. Some of the occupations they follow are: teaching, merchant, janitor, huckster, telephone operator, truck driver, druggist, bricklayer, plumber, carpenter, barber, surveyor, blacksmith, taxidermist, garage keeper, laundry man, mill worker, minister, student, public officer, painter, contractor, insurance agent, real estate agent, lumber man, coal miner, coal land dealer, auto mechanic, etc. Many of these people have bought baby farms at several hundred dollars per acre and have built attractive homes on them. One reason why this is a community of so many fine homes is that nearly all own their own homes and have their permanent occupations and industries which is an asset to any prosperous community. Acknowledgments: Credit is due J. B. Hill and Eli Connelly for assistance in preparing this history. The cuts for the pictures reproduced on pages 10, 24, 26, 45, 46, 47, and 50, and those on the upper halves of pages 48, 49, and 51 were furnished through the courtesy of the Stockman and Farmer Publishing Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
|Total Possible Points||1926||1927||1928|
Community Histories Index