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Sources Consulted

“Boston Combusts: The Fugitive Slave Case of Anthony Burns.” (accessed April 10, 2009).

Douglass, Frederick. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, written by himself. Hartford, CT: Park Publishing Co., 1882.

Du Bois, W. E. Burghardt. John Brown. Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Company, 1909.

Finkelman, Paul. ed. His Soul Goes Marching On: Responses to John Brown and the Harpers Ferry Raid. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Freehling, William W. The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776-1854. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Freehling, William W. The Road to Disunion: Secessionists Triumphant, 1854-1861. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Johnson, Mary. “An ‘ever present bone of contention’” The Heyward Shepherd Memorial.” West Virginia History 56 (1997).

"Map of UGRR Routes in NYS." (accessed April 9, 2009).

McKivigan, John R. “His Soul Goes Marching On: The Story of John Brown’s Followers after the Harpers Ferry Raid,” in John R. McKivigan and Stanley Harrold, eds. Antislavery Violence: Sectional, Racial, and Cultural Conflict in Antebellum America. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1999.

McKivigan, John R. and Madeleine Leveille. “The ‘Black Dream’ of Gerrit Smith, New York Abolitionist. Syracuse University Library Associates Courier, 20: 2 (Fall 1985). http://www/ (accessed April 24, 2009).

Moyer, Teresa S. and Paul A. Shackel. The Making of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park: A Devil, Two Rivers, and a Dream. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2008.

Oates, Stephen B. To Purge This Land with Blood: A Biography of John Brown. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1970.

Phillips, William. The Conquest of Kansas by Missouri and Her Allies. Boston: Phillips, Sampson and Company, 1856.

Quarles, Benjamin. Allies for Freedom: Blacks and John Brown. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Redpath, James. The Public Life of Capt. John Brown. Sandusky, OH: Kinney Brothers, 1872.

Reynolds, David S. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.

Sanborn, F. B. ed. Life and Letters of John Brown, Liberator of Kansas, and Martyr of Virginia. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1885.

Villard, Oswald Garrison. John Brown, 1800-1859: A Biography Fifty Years After. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910.

Wilson, Hill Peebles. John Brown, Soldier of Fortune: A Critique. Lawrence, KS: Hill P. Wilson, 1913.

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West Virginia Archives and History