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Birth of the West Virginia Coal Industry


Chesapeake and Ohio Historical Society. "History of the C&O."

Norfolk and Western Historical Society. "An Introduction to the Norfolk & Western Railway."

Norfolk and Western Historical Society. "An Introduction to The Virginian Railway."


Bailey, Kenneth R. "A Temptation to Lawlessness: Peonage in West Virginia, 1903-1908." West Virginia History 53(1993): 25-45.

Mining the Coal


"The History of Mining in Cape Breton-Mining Technology." Although this site pertains to Canadian mining, the glossary of terms is helpful in the study of coal mining in general.

Lasko, B. "A Coal Miner's Collection of Items." This personal page includes photos of miners at work with drills, pushing carts, and setting timbers. It also features photos and descriptions of hats, head lamps, lunch buckets, and safety lamps.

Library of Congress. "Tending the Commons: Folklife and Landscape in Southern West Virginia." The library's American Memory Project features southern West Virginia photos, including mines and miners.

Mine Safety and Health Administration. "A Pictorial Walk Through the 20th Century." This site includes a history, photos, and glossaries of terms. The "Little Miners" section includes an exhibit of child miners.

Mining History Network. This site allows students to compare and contrast coal mining around the world.

National Child Labor Committee. "Mr. Coal's Story." This site features photographs of young coal miners and an appeal by the National Child Labor Committee to prohibit children from working in mines. http://www.history.ohio?

The Ohio State University History Department. "Turn-of-the-Century Mining Machinery." This site includes photos of the early machinery that assisted hand-loading coal miners. http://www.history.ohio?

U.S. Department of Labor. "DOL Library: Child Labor Reform." This on-line exhibit illustrates the problem of child labor nationally in the early 20th century and the work of individuals like photographer Lewis Hine to document abuses.

West Virginia State Archives. "Archives and History Photograph Collection Database. This on-line collection includes photographs from the 1981 Coal Life project.

WVGenWeb. "West Virginia Coal Mines." This site includes links pertaining to early mining in the state.

Danger in the Mines


West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Time Trail, West Virginia. The scripts of various programs that aired on West Virginia Public Radio include additional discussion topics and bibliographic references:

"Eccles/Benwood Coal Mine Disasters."

"1st Lawsuit over a Coal Mine Disaster."

"Red Ash Coal Mine Disaster."

WVGenWeb. "West Virginia Coal Mines." This site includes links pertaining to individual mine disasters.


Rakes, Paul H. "Casualties on the Homefront: Scotts Run Mining Disasters During World War II." West Virginia History 53(1993): 95-118.

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