Burial of an elderly woman at the East Steubenville site, 2310 B.C.

For the six burials found at the East Steubenville site, project osteologist Dr. Sciulli identified each skeletal element, measured many of the individual bones (osteometrics), and recorded evidence of disease and injury (pathologies). His conclusions from examination of Burial 4 are shown in the illustration below.

With her age at death of 35-45 years, this woman in Burial 4 was probably old enough to be a grandmother in Panhandle Archaic society. Indeed, her pelvic bones showed signs that she herself had borne children. During her last years, she was hobbled by severe arthritis in her back and limbs, a legacy of the strenuous lifeway experienced by all members of her Panhandle Archaic band.

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